Kōrero: Te ture – Māori and legislation

Whārangi 5. Te whakaora i te ture Māori

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

Te Kore whakatika

I te tekau tau 1970 ka tū te Hīkoi Whenua Māori i te tau 1975 me te noho ki Takaparawhā, ā, ki Whāingaroa hoki i te tau 1978. Mai i te tau 1980 kua tū ngā porotēhi i ia tau, i ia tau, i te rā o Waitangi, ā, ā, nā ngā ākinga nei ka tahuri te kāwanatanga ki te whakarerekē i ngā ture e pā ana ki te Māori. I ētahi o ngā ture he whānui kē atu te titiro ki ngā ture me ngā tikanga Māori.

Status of Children Act 1969

Ko te ture Status of Children 1969 tētahi ture i hurihia kia aro tonu ki te tikanga Māori. I mua atu ko ngā mātua o te tamaiti ōna kaitiaki tūturu. Engari i rerekē tēnei i te tikanga Māori. E ai ki te tikanga Māori he tino kahurangi te tamaiti nā te whānau katoa. Nō te ture Status of Children Act 1969 ka tangohia te rerekētanga ture i waenganui i te tamariki ‘pōriro’ me te tamariki ‘tūturu’. Ka tau tēnei ture ki te Māori me Tauiwi hoki. Nā reira ka rerekē te ture Pākehā kia hāngai tonu ki tā te tikanga Māori.

Ngā whakataunga tiriti

I whakaturia te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi i te tau 1975 hei tirotiro i ngā takahitanga o te Tiriti o Waitangi. Mai i te tau 1985 i taea ai e te Taraipiunara te tirotiro ki ngā takahitanga onamata. Na ngā kitenga a te Taraipiunara ka tautokona ētahi kerēme tiriti nunui, i nunui ai ngā hua i puta mō ērā iwi. I waihangatia he ture hou hei āwhina i ngā whakataunga tiriti. E rua ēnei tauira whakataunga tiriti; ko te Whakataunga Raupatu o Waikato i te tau 1995 me te Whakataunga Kereme o Ngāi Tahu i te tau 1998.

Ngā mātāpono o te tiriti

Mai i ngā tau 1980, kua rahi ake ngā ture hou e pā ana ki ngā mātāpono o te Tiriti o Waitangi. Inā rā ētahi:

  • Te State-Owned Enterprises Act 1986, wāhanga 9
  • Te Conservation Act  1987, wāhanga 4
  • Te Resource Management Act 1991, wāhanga 8
  • Te Energy Efficiency and Conservation Act 2000, wāhanga 6.

Ahakoa kāore ngā ture i te hāngai pū ki te tiriti, tērā pea ma ngā mātāpono o te tiriti hei whakatutuki.  I ētahi wā nā te whakamahi ā-ture i ngā mātāpono o te tiriti i māmā ake ai te whaiwhai ake e te Māori ngā tikanga me ngā mahi o onamata.

Te whakamahi i tētahi tika

Na tētahi kaupapa nui i te tau 1986 i taea ai e te mana Māori taketake hī ika te pare atu i ngā ture Pākeha. I mauheretia a Tom Te Weehi i te Kōti ā-Rohe mō tana kato i ngā pāua pakupaku rawa. Ka tono ia ki te Kōti Teitei, me te whakahau i ngā tikanga e hāngai ana ki te mana taketake o namata. Ka kitea e te kaiwhakawā te hāngai o ana mahi ki te mana Māori taketake. Nā tēnei āhuatanga kāore ngā ture hī ika i hāngai ki a Te Weehi, nā reira kāore ia i takahi ture. ‘Kāore anō kia weto te mana o te iwi taketake i ngā whakapakoko, ana kua kitea e ahau…he ture, he tukanga e mārama ai te kite atu i te wetotanga.1

Ture Manaaki Taiao 1991

Nō muri mai i te whakataunga o te Ture Manaaki Taiao 1991, ko ngā ture taiao kāore i aro ake ki ngā māharahara a te Māori e pā ana ki te hītori Māori, te wairuatanga me ngā tikanga. I te nuinga o te wā i whāia e te Māori te huarahi o ngā kōti hei tāwharau i ōna whenua taketake, ngā kōawaawa, te moana me ētahi atu rawa engari kāore i eke panuku te Māori. Ko te ture hou nei e hāngai pū ana ki te wairuatanga Māori, ngā tikanga Māori me ngā mātāpono o te Tiriti o Waitangi. I raro i te ture nei me whakawhitiwhiti kōrero te kāwanatanga ki te iwi ina hiahia ia ki te whakawhanake i te taiao, ā, ko ngā tono whakawhanake rawa, me mātua tono ki ngā māngai o ngā iwi.

Te Ture Whenua Māori

Nā te Ture Whenua Māori 1993 i kitea ai te tino rerekē o te whakahaere i ngā here ā-ture mo ngā whenua Māori.  Koia nei te wā tuatahi, i kitea ai te hōhonutanga o te hono o te Māori ki te whenua, ā i kitea ai mā te ture e tautoko kia pupuri tonutia te whenua. Nā te ture nei i whakahau te Kōti Whenua Māori kia āwhina i ngā Māori whai whenua kia whakamahia, kia whakawhanakehia, kia puritia te mana o te whenua e te Māori. Ko tā te ture kia puri tonutia e te Māori ōna whenua hei oranga mō rātou, mō ō rātau whānau, mō ō rātau hapū me ō rātau uri whakaheke.

Ngā tika tāngata whenua

I te tau 1870 ko Francis Fenton, he kaiwhakawā Māori o mua mō te Kōti Whenua Māori, i aro ake ki ngā mātāpono ā-ture mō ngā iwi taketake kia whai mana ki ngā rawa:’Ki te nōhia e te tangata taketake, te whānau taketake, te iwi taketake rānei mō te wā roa hoki, ā, kua roa e whakamahi ana i te whenua, e hī ika ana mai te whenua, otirā, kua aukatihia te whenua mai i ētahi atu mō te wā roa, i mua noa atu i ngā ture Peretānia i te motu nei, e tika ana kia āhei rātau kia whai mana ki ngā rawa o te whenua.2

Te Ture takutai moana

Mai i te tau 1997 arā kē noa atu ngā ture, tae atu ki te Ture Takutai Moana 2011, kua whakamahia hei whakatau i ngā taupatupatu i waenganui i te tikanga Māori ki te takutai me te moana, me te ture Pākeha takutai moana.  I ahu mai ēnei ture i ngā kerēme Māori taketake ki te mana o te takutaimoana me ōna rawa. E hāngai ana ngā kereme ki te mana whai rawa mō ngā iwi taketake – ko te mātāpono i mua noa i te taenga mai me te pēhitanga o te ture pākeha, i whakamahia e te Māori ōna ake ture me āna ake tikanga, e kore e taea e te ture o ētahi atu te whakawhiu ki raro.

Kupu tāpiri
  1. Te Weehi v Regional Fisheries, p. 690. Back
  2. Tohutoro Fergus Sinclair, ‘Kauwaeranga in context’. Victoria University of Wellington Law Review 29, no. 1 (Hānuere 1999), p. 14. Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Rāwiri Taonui, 'Te ture – Māori and legislation - Te whakaora i te ture Māori', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/te-ture-maori-and-legislation/page-5 (accessed 27 October 2020)

He kōrero nā Rāwiri Taonui, i tāngia i te 20 Jun 2012