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Te Whānau-ā-Apanui

by  Roka Paora

He tangata waimarie a Apanui Ringamutu, te tipuna taketake o Te Whānau-ā-Apanui. I a ia e taitama ana ka tukuna ki a ia he rohe whenua i Te Tai Rāwhiti tae atu ki te awa o Mōtū. Nā ōna uri whakaheke te whenua i tāmata. Ko ngā hua o te patu tohorā ka whakahokia anō ngā painga mā te hapori. I ēnei rā, whakahaerehia ai e Te Whānau-ā-Apanui ōna rawa hao ika, poraka whenua paina me ētahi atu umanga whai hua.


Lands

He tino waimarie a Apanui Ringamutu te tipuna taketake o Te Whānau-ā-Apanui. I a ia e taitama ana ka tukuna ētahi whenua nui ki a ia i te Tai Rāwhiti, tae atu ki te awa o Mōtū. Nā ōna uri whakaheke te whenua i noho. Waihoki, ko ngā rawa i ahu i te mahi patu tohorā ka whakahokia ki te iwi. I ēnei rā whakahaerehia ai e Te Whānau-ā-Apanui āna kaupapa hao ika, ōna poraka whenua kua tipuria ki te rākau paina me ētahi atu kaupapa pakihi kua whai hua.

Ka toro te rohe atu i Taumata-ō-Apanui (kei waenganui o Tōrere me Hāwai) ki Pōtaka. E noho ana ngā hapū e 13 ki ngā whenua kei te kūititanga i waenganui i te takutai me te pae maunga o Raukūmara i te taha rāwhiti o te Moana a Toitehuatahi.

Koinei te pepeha mō te iwi:

Mai i Taumata o Apanui ki Pōtaka
Ko Whanokao te maunga
Ko Mōtū te awa
Ko Whakaari te puia
Ko Apanui te tangata
Ko Te Whānau-ā-Apanui te iwi

Kei te Paeroa o Raukūmara te maunga o Whanokao e tū ana, arā, me ahu whakatetonga mā rāwhiti i Te Kaha, ka whakatata ki te paenga whenua i waenganui i a Te Whānau-ā-Apanui rāua ko Ngāti Porou. Kei Maraenui te pūaha o te awa o Mōtū. Tū mātāhō ana a Whakaari ki mua i te aroaro o tōna iwi i ngā tau ki muri ā, tatū noa ki ēnei rā.


Ancestors

Apanui Ringamutu

Tapaina ai te iwi o Te Whānau-ā-Apanui ki tō rātou tipuna a Apanui Ringamutu, e ora ana i te rau tau atu i 1600. (Ko te ingoa o Ngāti Awa mōna ko Apanui Te Haua, ko Apanui Te Kuti rānei.) Nā te tiketike o ōna tātai whakapapa me tōna mana, i maru te iwi ki raro ki tōna ingoa.

Ko tōna matua a Tūrīrangi, he uri whakaheke tika i a Tamatekapua nō te waka o Te Arawa ka tahi, nō te iwi o Ngāriki nō te waka o Tauira ka rua.

Ko tōna kōkā a Rongomaihuatahi he uri whakaheke tika nō Porourangi o Ngāti Porou. I a Apanui e tamariki ana ka whakawhiwhia ia ki ētahi o ngā whenua o Ngāti Porou, o Ngāriki hoki.

I tukuna ki a Apanui e Te Aotākaia, tōna matua kēkē i te taha o tōna kōkā, te whenua mai i Pōtikirua ki Puketapu. I kohaina e te matua o Apanui ki a ia te whenua mai i te Taumata-ō-Apanui ki te awa o Mōtū. Nō muri mai, nā tōna ringa kaha ka riro i a Apanui ngā whenua atu i te awa o Mōtū ki Puketapu.

Tokowhā ngā wāhine a Apanui, he tokomaha hoki ana tamariki. Ko tana wahine tuarua a Te Whaaki te kōkā o ā rāua tamariki tokowhitu. Ko tana wahine tuatoru a Kohepare nō Ngāi Tai, tokorima ā rāua tamariki. Ko tana wahine tuawhā a Kiritapu hei tuakana, hei teina rānei nā Te Kohepare; tokorima ā rāua tamariki ko Apanui. Ko ētahi o ana mokopuna ko Matekitatahi rātou ko Te Haraawaka, ko Hikarukautai, ko Kahurautao, ko Hinetekahu, ko Tūtawake. Whakaheke mai ai ētahi o ngā hapū o ēnei rā i ēnei tīpuna.

Tūkākī

Ko Tūkākī te tama a Apanui rāua ko tana wahine tuatahi a Kahukuramihiata, nō Ngāti Kahungunu. Ka ū ki runga ki a Tūkākī ngā kāwai rangatira o Porourangi, o Kahungunu, o Toroa, o Tamatekapua. Kitea māramatia ai tēnei whakapaparanga i ngā tukutuku kei ngā kokonga e whā o te wharenui i Te Kaha.

Ka moe a Tūkākī i a Te Rangiwhakapunea kia whānau mai ā rāua tamariki, ko ētahi ko:

  • Te Ehutu, nāna i pupuri te mana o tōna matua ki ngā whenua i tukua ihotia ki a ia
  • Kaiaio, he tangata hūmārie i mōhiotia ai mō tōna tohungatanga ki te whakatipu kūmara
  • Tamahae, te tino toa o te iwi i ōna rā, i tū ki ngā pae o te riri puta noa i te Tai Rāwhiti. Nāna ka ea te mate o tōna kuia a Kahukuramihiata; ka tae rā anō ia ki Hauturu (Little Barrier Island) i te moana o Tīkapa ki te patu i a Ngāti Wai.

Stories of Apanui Ringamutu’s family

Ko Rongomaihuatahi rāua ko Tūrīrangi

I takoto te kōrero a Apanui Waipapa o Ngāti Porou kia moe tana tamāhine a Rongomaihuatahi ki a Tūrīrangi, he uri nō Tamatekapua, nō Ngāriki o Tunapahore hoki. Nāwai, ka tū te riri ki waenganui i a Apanui Waipapa rāua ko te rangatira o Ūawa a Kahukuranui, ka patua a Apanui Waipapa.

Nō muri, i patua e Tūrīrangi ētahi o ngā uri o Kahukuranui i tētahi wāhi e pātata ana ki Tunapahore. Ka hau te rongo mō te matenga nei i te Tai Rāwhiti puta noa, tae rawa ki te iwi o Kahukuranui i Ūawa.

Whāia, ka whakaarahia e Kahukuranui he taua nui, ka hikitia te ara ki Tunapahore, he ranaki mate te take. I tō rātou whakaekenga i te pā o Tūrīrangi, ka patua a Kahukuranui. Hei tohu whakanui i tēnei toanga ka tonoa e ngā tamariki a Apanui Waipapa tō rātou tuahine a Rongomaihuatahi ki te taha rāwhiti o te Moana a Toitehuatahi, ki reira rapu ai i te tangata nāna a Kahukuranui i patu.

Ka tae a Rongomaihuatahi me tana iwi ki Tunapahore. I reira ka tūtaki, ka moe rāua ko Tūrīrangi, kia puta i a rāua te tipuna taketake o te iwi, a Apanui Ringamutu.

Te tūtakitanga o Apanui Ringamutu ki te iwi o tōna whāea

E ono, e whitu tau pea i muri i te moenga o tō rātou tuahine ki a Tūrīrangi, ka haere ngā tungāne o Rongomaihuatahi me ngā iwi o te rohe o Ngāti Porou ki tētahi hui nui ki Ōmāio.

I tōna rongotanga mō te hui, ka hīkoi a Rongomaihuatahi rāua ko tana tama nohinohi a Apanui Ringamutu mā te takutai i Tunapahore. I tō rāua taenga ki te kōawa i muri i te pā o Ōmāio, ka tohungia e Rongomaihuatahi tana tama kia haere atu ko ia anake, ka noho a Rongomaihuatahi ki ngā tahataha o te manga mātaki atu ai. Nō te kitenga atu o ngā kaumātua rā i te tamaiti tāne e tākaro ana i te taha o ngā tamariki o Ngāti Porou, ka tono rātou kia haria atu taua tamaiti rā ki a rātou.

Ka pātai atu ngā kaumātua ko wai ia, ko tana whakautu, koia te tama a Rongomaihuatahi. I konei ka tangi aroha atu a Te Aotākaia - te tungāne o Rongomaihuatahi - rātou ko te ope katoa o Ngāti Porou. Ka kī atu a Apanui, ā kō ake nei ka tae atu tōna whāea. I tō rātou rongotanga ake mō tēnei, ka mihi, ka tangi taua iwi rā.

Nō konei ka puta a Rongomaihuatahi i tana wāhi huna ka kotahi atu ki tōna iwi. Nā tana harikoa i te hononga o te iwi o Tūrīrangi rāua ko Rongomaihuatahi, ka whakatauria e tana tungāne e Te Aotakaia, ko ngā whenua atu i Pōtikirua ki Puketapu me tuku ki tana irāmutu, ki a Apanui Ringamutu rātou ko ōna uri whakaheke.


Post-European economy

Ngā ahuwhenua ki tai

I te tau 1769 i tuhi a Kāpene Kuki mō te huhua o ngā kāinga kei te taha moana, te nui o ngā māra, te tini tāngata ki ngā pā me ngā papakāinga. Heoti, kāore ngā tāngata whai tōmua i hiahia ki ngā whenua o Te Whānau-ā-Apanui i te mea kāore he whanga wai hōhonu i te rohe, he tawhiti rawa hoki i ngā mākete hokohoko.

Te patu tohorā

Ko ētahi o ngā Pākehā tuatahi kia tae ki Aotearoa ko ngā kaipatu tohorā rātou ko ngā kaihokohoko. I akohia e ngā kaipatu tohorā o Amerika, o Nōwei, o Wīwī, ngā tāngata whenua ki te patu tohorā. I moe ētahi o rātou ki ngā wāhine o te iwi ā, kei te rohe o Te Whānau a Apanui tonu ō rātou uri e noho ana.

Kia tae ki ngā tau tōmua o te rau tau atu i 1900 ko te mahi patu tohorā te kaipakihi tino nui, hei kaupapa mahinga tahitanga hoki mā Te Whānau-ā-Apanui. Ko ngā moni hua mai i te mahi hinu tohorā i whakapauhia ki ngā kaupapa hapori pērā i te waihanga wharenui, wharekarakia hoki.

Nō te tau 1924 ka patua te tohorā whakamutunga ki Te Kaha.

Ahuwhenua

Ko tētahi anō o ngā kaipakihi matua i ngā tau tōmua o te rau tau 1900 ko te ahuwhenua. Nā ngā mahi poro rākau ka wātea te whenua e āhei ai ngā pāmu whakamōmona kau, ngā teihana hipi me ngā punua pāmu miraka kau. Nā te tīmatanga o te Mahi Whakapakari Whenua Māori (Native Land Development Scheme) ka ū ngā mahi miraka kau. I te tau 1925 ka whakatuwherahia te wheketere miraka kau o Te Kaha.

Ko Wiremu Swinton o Raukōkore te kaiahuwhenua Māori tuatahi kia riro i te Ipu Ahuwhenua i te tau 1932. Ko ētahi atu tāngata o Te Whānau-ā-Apanui i riro i tēnei ipu ko Wiremu, te tama a Swinton, rāua ko Tikirau Karehana.

Te tau e 1960 tae noa ki ēnei rā

Nō te tau 1961 ka oti te huarahi o te Tai Rāwhiti, ka nui ake te haere mai o te hunga tāpoi.

Kia tae ki te tekau tau atu i 1980 kua kore e puta he oranga i te miraka kau me ētahi atu mahi ahuwhenua pakupaku. I pā te kino ki a Te Whānau-ā-Apanui i te hokona a te kāwanatanga i ōna rawa tūmatanui. Nō te katinga o te poutāpeta o Te Kaha ka heke iho anō te wairua o te iwi.

He rite a Te Whānau-ā-Apanui ki ētahi atu iwi, arā, ko ētahi o te iwi i noho ki te wā kāinga, ki te tukituki i ngā ahi kā, ko ētahi o te iwi i hūnuku ki rohe kē, ki whenua kē. Tini te tangata i wehe atu i te rau tau 1900, nā ngā pakanga o te ao, nā te whai i te mātauranga, nā ngā whakangungu mahi me ngā tūranga mahi hoki.

Mai anō i ngā tau tōmua o te tekau tau atu i 1990 kua whakahaerehia paihia e te manatū o te iwi (Te Rūnanga-o-te-Whānau) āna rawa hao ika. Kua kaha haere tana whakauru ki ngā kaupapa ratonga hapori me ētahi atu whanaketanga ōhanga. Ko te nuinga o ngā ngahere paina kei runga i ngā poraka whenua e tipu ana, ka topea ā mua o te tau 2025. Kua tīmata te whakangao moni ki ētahi atu ahumahi pēnei i tētahi pae tukutuku pārongo hangarau.


Facts and figures

Ngā tuakiritanga ā-iwi

I ngā tatauranga o Aotearoa mai i te tau 1991 ka pātaihia ngā tāngata Māori nō tēhea iwi rātou.

Kei raro ko ngā nama e whakaatu ana tokohia ngā tāngata nō Te Whānau-a-Apanui (e whai pānga ana rānei ki ētahi atu iwi hoki). Kei raro anō whakaatuhia ai ngā iwi o ngā rohe nunui i te tatauranga o te tau 2013.

  • tatauranga o 1991: 7,182
  • tatauranga o 2001: 9,951
  • tatauranga o 2006: 11,808
  • tatauranga o 2013: 12,951

Ngā rohe nunui

  • Te Moana a Toi: 4,344
  • Tāmaki-makaurau: 2,367

Hononga, rauemi nō waho

More suggestions and sources


How to cite this page: Roka Paora, 'Te Whānau-ā-Apanui', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/te-whanau-a-apanui/print (accessed 17 July 2019)

Story by Roka Paora, published 8 Feb 2005, updated 10 Feb 2015