Kōrero: Tōrangapū

Whārangi 2. Te aranga o ngā rōpū

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

I te tau 1891 ka hangā te rōpū tōrangapū tuatahi – arā, te Rōpū Rīpera. Ka whakatū tēnei rōpū i tētahi kāwanatanga hanganga hou (reform), ā, he nui te Māori ka rāpoi atu.

Nō te tau 1909 ka hua ake tētahi rōpū mautau (conservative) arā, te Rōpū Hanganga Hou. Ko ōna pōti ka ahu mai i ngā kaipāmu me te hunga noho tāone pae oranga waenganui (middle class).

Timi Kara

Nō te tau 1887 ka kōwhiri tuatahitia a Timi Kara (o Ngāti Kahungunu) hei māngai mō Te Tai Rāwhiti. He kaitaunaki tōmua a ia nō te Rōpū Rīpera. I te tau 1892 ka tīpako koia hei minita Māori – te Māori tuatahi kia tū ki tētahi tūranga minita.

Nā te āki o te Rōpū Rīpera i te hoko whenua Māori, ka nunumi atu ngā pōti o Kara i Te Tai Rāwhiti. Heoi nā te mea he Airihi te matua, he Ngāti Kahungunu hoki te māmā, ka whakaaetia kia tū ia ki ngā tūru whānui.

Ka mutu nō te tau 1893 ka toa i a ia te tūru whānui o Waiapu – ā, koia te Māori tuatahi kia wini i tētahi tūru whānui. I te tau 1908 ka tīpakongia ia hei mema pāremata mō te rohe o Tūranga (Gisborne), ā, i ngā tau 1910 me 1911 he wā koia te Pirimia rīwhi.

Wī Pere

I te tau 1884 ka tomokia e Wī Pere (nō Te Aitanga-a-Māhaki me Rongowhakaata) te Whare Pāremata engari i ngā tau 1887 me 1889 ka hinga ia ki a Timi Kara. He kaipīkau ia i te kaupapa Kotahitanga kia kaua te hoko, kia kaua te rīhi whenua Māori. I te tau 1893 ka auraki ia ki te Pāremata i te rironga anō o te tūru o Te Tai Rāwhiti i a ia. I waenganui i ngā tau o 1907 me te tau 1912 ka noho ia ki te Kaunihera Hanga Ture.

Hōne Heke Ngāpua

Ko Hōne Heke Ngāpua (o Ngāpuhi) te māngai o Te Tai Tokerau, ā, mate noa ia i te tau 1909. I whakahāngai ia ki te Rōpū Rīpera. Ko tāna i aru ai, kia whai mana te Tiriti o Waitangi me te hononga o te Māori rāua ko te Karauna.

Āpirana Ngata

Ko Āpirana Ngata (nō Ngāti Porou) te kanohi o Te Tai Rāwhiti mai i te tau 1905 ki te tau 1943. Koia hoki te minita Māori mei i te tau 1928 ki te tau 1934. Nā tōna mātau ki te ao Pākehā me ōna pūmanawa ngaio ka whakahautia e ia tana iwi kia ahuwhenuatia o rātou whenua. I akiaki ano ia kia rarawe ki te ahurea Māori me te tuakiri ake o te Māori.

Taurekareka Hēnare

Ko Taurekareka Hēnare (nō Ngāti Hine me Ngāpuhi) te māngai o Te Tai Tokerau mai i te tau 1914 ki tōna hinganga i a Paraire Paikea i te tau 1938. I te tau 1993 ka riro i tana tuarua i a Tau Hēnare te tūru o Te Tai Tokerau i te wā he mema ia nō Aotearoa Tuatahi. I te tau 2005 ka tū ia hei mema pāremata o Nāhinara.

Māui Pōmare

Ko Māui Pōmare (nō Ngāti Toa me Ngāti Mutunga) anō i whakahāngai ki te Rōpū Hanganga Hou. I te tau 1916 koia te minita Kuki Airini, ā, koia te minita hauora i te tau 1923. Whai muri i te matenga o Pōmare ka kōwhiria ko Tāite Te Tomo (nō Ngāti Tūwharetoa me Ngāti Raukawa) hei māngai mō Te Tai Hauāuru.

Rīpera, Hanganga Hou rānei

Nā ngā Rīpera i whakatū te Kōmihana Whenua Māori hei urupare i ngā nawe whenua. Heoi ko te kāwanatanga Hanganga Hou te tuatahi kia hora i ētahi whakahokinga rawa ki te Māori. Ka whakatakotoria ki a Te Arawa ētahi moni kia tukuna te mana pupuri me te whakamahinga o ngā roto o te rohe o Rotorua. Nāwai ka whakatakotoria anō ki a Tūwharetoa he moni kia tukuna ai te mana ki te hī ki te moana o Taupō me ōna muriwai.

Nā te kāwanatanga Hanganga Hou i whakatū ngā kōmihana whakatewhatewha i ngā nawe mō ngā hēnga me ngā takahi ture e pā ana ki ngā raupatu whenua ki a Ngāi Tahu, ki a Te Whakatōhea, ki a Taranaki me Waikato Tainui. He kaupapa tēnei i tautokona e ngā mema Māori o Rīpera me te rōpū Hanganga Hou. I mahi ngātahi tonu ngā māngai Māori i muri mai hoki i te whakakotahitanga o te rōpū United me te Rōpū Hanganga Hou hei kāwanatanga i te tau 1931.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Ann Sullivan, 'Tōrangapū - Te aranga o ngā rōpū', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/torangapu/page-2 (accessed 18 June 2021)

He kōrero nā Ann Sullivan, i tāngia i te 20 Jun 2012, reviewed & revised 18 Jul 2016