Kōrero: Tōrangapū

Whārangi 3. Rātana, Reipa me Mana Motuhake

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

Ka kitea i te rautau 1900 te puea ake o ētahi rōpū aro tōrangapū Māori. Engari nō te tau 1967 kātahi rawa te kāwanatanga Nāhinara ka whakamahia te tū o tētahi kaitono Māori ki ngā rohe pōti Pākehā. Whāia nō te tau 1975 rawa ka whakaaetia te Māori kia pōti ki te rārangi Māori, ki te rārangi whānui rānei.

Rātana

He hāhi Māori a Rātana, i puawai mai i te poropiti i a Tahupōtiki Wiremu Rātana. Taro iho i tōna tīmatanga urutomo rawatia te kawa tōrangapū i runga i te kaupapa taketake kia whakamanatia te Tiriti o Waitangi. I tōna aropū ki te rawakore me te noho kore whenua o te Māori ka mene katoa ngā iwi Māori o te motu ki a Rātana. Koia te rōpū tōrangapū tuatahi kia arohia e ngā iwi Māori rerekē. Ka riro ki a Rātana te tūru o Te Tai Tonga (atu i te tau 1932), te tūru o Te Tai Hauāuru (atu i te tau 1935) me te tūru o Te Tai Tokerau (atu i te tau 1938).

Te haumitanga o Rātana me Reipa

I te tau 1936 ka haumi a Rātana ki te Rōpū Reipa. Ko te urunga tērā o ngā mema Rātana ki raro ki a Reipa.

Nā te kāwanatanga tuatahi o Reipa i tuku ngā penihana ki te Māori kia noho ōrite ki ērā e whiwhia ana e Tauiwi. Nā runga i tērā ka pūmau te iwi Māori ki a Rātana me te Rōpū Reipa ā tae noa ki te tau 1996. Ko ētahi māngai rongonui o taua wā ko Eruera Tirikātene, ko Iriaka Rātana, ko Whetū Tirikātene-Sullivan (ko rāua ko Iriaka ngā māngai wāhine Māori tuatahi) me Matiu Rata.

Heoi i te kōwhiringa i a Tau Hēnare o Aotearoa Tuatahi hei māngai mō Te Tai Tokerau ka huataki ētahi rerekētanga e pā ana ki ngā rohe pōti Māori.

Iriaka Rātana

Ko Iriaka Rātana (nō Te Āti Haunui-ā-Pāpārangi) te māngai wahine Māori tuatahi i tōna tūnga hei mema pāremata i te tau 1949. I taka ki a ia te tūru Māori o Te Tai Hauāuru nō te matenga o tōna hoa rangatira a Matiu Rātana. Ko Matiu hoki te piki tūranga o tōna tuakana a Haami Tokouru Rātana i te tau 1945. E rua tekau tau te roa i a Iriaka te tūru. I aropū ia ki ngā take pāpori a te iwi.

Whetū Tirikātene-Sullivan

Ko Whetū Tirikātene-Sullivan (nō Ngāi Tahu) hoki te piki tūranga o tōna papa a Eruera Tirikātene ki te tūru o Te Tai Tonga. Nō tōna makeretanga i te tau 1996 koia te mema pāremata wahine roa rawa tana noho ki te whare miere. I tōna wā, i a ia te tūnga minita mō ngā tāpoi, ā, koia anō te minita tuarua ki ngā take whakahiato ora, taiao hoki. I te tau 2011 ka tohua te mokopuna a Eruera, me te irāmutu o Whetū, arā, a Rino Tirikātene hei māngai mō Te Tai Tonga (i mua atu karangahia ai ko te Southern Māori Electorate). I kake a Rino ki te tūranga i mahue i tōna koroua me tōna whāea (arā, e 64 tau te roa, atu i te tau 1932 ki te tau 1996).

Matiu Rata

He mema nō te hāhi Rātana, he kaumoana, he āpiha uniana a Matiu Rata (o Ngāti Kurī). Koia te māngai mō Te Tai Tokerau atu i te tau 1963 ki te tau 1980. I te wā nōna te tūranga minita mō ngā take me ngā whenua Māori (1972-75) ka turuki ia i te kaupapa i whakaturia ai te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi. Nāna te kōrero mō ngā nawe whenua Māori, arā, ‘he tino kaha, nā reira, e kore e taea e te kāwanatanga tika te waiho ngā nawe mehemea ka āta tirohia.’1

I whai wāhi hoki ia ki te whakataunga o te ono o Pēpuere (te rangi i hainatia te Tiriti o Waitangi) hei hararei ā-motu. I te tau 1979 ka mahue i a ia te Rōpū Reipa, ā, i te tau 1980 ka wehe i te Pāremata. He ai ki a ia me aropū rawa te rōpū Reipa ki ngā take Māori.

I tōna ārahi i te rōpū hou o Mana Motuhake ka whakataetae ia i te tūru mō te kōwhiringa ohorere mō te Turu o Te Tai Tokerau. Engari ka hinga ia i te kaitono o Reipa, a Bruce Gregory, ā, kore rawa ia mō te hoki ki te Whare Miere. Nāwai ka hāngai atu ia ki ngā take whenua me ngā kerēme hao ika o Muriwhenua, ā, tae noa ki tōna matenga i te tau 1997.

Mana Motuhake

Ko te kaupapa ake o te rōpū Mana Motuhake he pupuri i te mana whenua Māori. I ngā kōwhiringa i te tau 1981 e 15 ōrau o te pōti Māori ka haere ki te Rōpū Mana Motuhake. I te tau 1990 ka haumi i a ki a Reipa Hou, ā, hua rawa mai ko te Rōpū Tūhono i te tau 1993. Nō te whatinga mai o Eva Tuaiwa Rickard ka whakatū i tōna rōpū hou a te Rōpū o Mana Māori. I whakataetae tēnei rōpū i ngā kōwhiringa o te tau 2002.

Sandra Lee-Vercoe

I te tau 1993 ka riro i a Sandra Lee (nō muri mai ko Sandra Lee-Vercoe) te tūru mō Tāmaki Pokapū. Ko ia te kaiārahi tuarua o Mana Motuhake, me te mema hoki o te haumitanga o Tūhono. Ko Lee te wahine Māori tuatahi kia toa ki tētahi tūru whānui. I ngā tau 1996 me 1999 ka aurakia e ia te Pāremata hei mema rārangi mō Mana Motuhake me Tūhono. I te tau 1999 ka tohua ia hei minita mō ngā kāwanatanga rohe, ā, he maha ngā whakarerekētanga i mahia e ia i ngā kaunihera. Ko Lee hoki te minita taiao me te minita tuarua mō ngā take Māori.

Kupu tāpiri
  1. I takoto ki ‘Obituary: Matiu Rata’, Independent, 28 Hōngongoi 1997. Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Ann Sullivan, 'Tōrangapū - Rātana, Reipa me Mana Motuhake', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/torangapu/page-3 (accessed 6 March 2021)

He kōrero nā Ann Sullivan, i tāngia i te 20 Jun 2012, reviewed & revised 18 Jul 2016