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Tōrangapū – Māori and political parties

by Ann Sullivan

I te taenga mai o Tauiwi ka whakatauria te pūnaha kāwanatanga o Peretānia. Mai anō i tōna huatakinga, ka nanaiore te Māori kia kanohi kitea i te kāwanatanga.


Creating a Māori electoral system

Te pōti tuatahi

I te kōwhiringa tuatahi o Aotearoa i te tau 1853, he mema takitahi ngā kaitono, ā, kāore anō ngā rōpū.

E pōti ai te tangata, me whai taitara whenua, me rīhi, me rēti whenua rawa. He tokoiti te Māori i whai taitara whenua i taua wā, ā, kāore i uru tētahi Māori ki te pāremata.

Te hanga i ngā tūru Māori

I te tau 1867 ka hangaia ngā tūru Māori hei pōtitanga mā ngā rohe Māori. Ka āhei te Māori kia tū ki ngā tūru Māori anake, māna he kotahi te mātua he Tauiwi, ka āhei te tū ki ngā rohe whānui hoki.

Anei ētahi take i hangaia ai ngā tūru Māori:

  • He mea whakatairanga e ngā Rīpera i Ingarangi te iwiruatanga i waenganui i te Māori me Tauiwi
  • Kātahi ka hangā ētahi tūru hou ki Te Waipounamu mō ngā kaikeri koura. Nā whai anō i te whakatūnga o ngā tūru Māori ka kotahi anake te tūru ki Te Waipounamu, ā, ka toru ki Te Ika-a-Māui. I pēnei rātou kia tau ōrite te mana whakahaere i ngā moutere e rua.
  • He manako nō te Karauna kia whakararata i ngā iwi whai muri i ngā pakanga whenua o Aotearoa.
  • He koronga hoki mā ngā tūru hou e whakawaimeha te awe o ngā whakahaerenga me ngā hāhi Māori e whakahē ana ki ngā hoko whenua Māori.

I whakaarotia he poto noa iho te wā ki ngā rohe pōti Māori. He pōhēhē ngā āpiha kia takitahi rā anō te taitara o ngā whenua Māori, ka tahuri rātou ki te pōti whānui. Engari anō i te manotau 2000 he tūāhua whai hiranga tonu ngā tūru Māori.

Tukanga tohe

I te hangatanga o ngā tūru Māori i te tau 1867 ka whakahē te poropiti o Ngāpuhi a Aperahama Taonui ki te take o ngā tūru e whā e hanumia ana e ngā tūru Pākehā; ka uia hoki e ia mēnā ka rangona ō rātou reo i waenganui i ērā o te Pākehā.[1] E ai ki a ia me ngā rangatira o Ngāpuhi mā te iwi rā anō e tohu ngā kaitono. Ko Taonui tonu tērā i tohua e ngā rangatira hei kaitono ki te tūru Māori o Te Tai Tokerau. Hāunga te huarahi Māori i whakatakotoria, ka whakamahia te pūnaha pōti o Ūropi, ā, ka ara ake tētahi kaitono ko Frederick Nene Russell. Nā te mea koia anake te kaitono ka riro i a ia te tūru; he tama a Russell nō tētahi kaitārai kaipuke Pākehā, me tētahi wahine Māori whai mana. Kīhai rawa ngā rangatira i pōti.

Ngā Māngai tuatahi

I te tau 1868 ka kōwhiria ko Frederick Nene Russell ki te tūru Māori o Te Tai Tokerau. Ki Te Tai Hauāuru ka tohua ko Mete Kīngi Te Rangi Paetahi (Ngā Poutama me Ngāti Tūmango). Koia anake hoki te kaitono ki tērā rohe. I te Tai Rāwhiti ko Tāreha Te Moananui (o Ngāti Kahungunu) i toa i runga i te pōti kotahi. Ki Te Tai Tonga e toru tonu te hunga whakataetae, ā, ka hua ake ko John Patterson.

He maha ngā taero i tūpono ai ngā māngai Māori tuatahi. He ruarua ngā pire me ngā pānui i whakamāoritia, ā, he iti rawa ngā Pākehā i aro anō ki te reo Māori māna he kaiwhakapākehā rā anō. Mai i te tau 1881 ki te tau 1906 ka tāia ngā kauhau reo Māori ki roto i Nga Korero Paramete (he tauira Māori o te Hansard). Heoi ko te katoa atu o ngā mahi pāremata i roto i te reo Pākehā anake.

Ngā māngai o muri iho

I ngā kōwhiringa o muri mai ka haere te tūru Māori o Te Tai Tokerau ki a Wiremu Kātene, ki a Hōri Karaka Tawhiti, ki a Īhaka Hakuene me Hirini Taiwhanga. Ki Te Tai Rāwhiti mai i te tau 1871 ki te tau 1883 ko Karaitiana Takamoana rāua ko Hēnare Tomoana. Mai i te tau 1871 ki te tau 1884 ko Hoani Nahe rātou ko Wiremu Te Whēoro, ko Te Puke Te Ao ngā māngai o Te Tai Hauāuru. Ki Te Tai Tonga ko Hōri Kerei Taiāroa rātou ko Īhāia Tainui ko Tame Parata (nō Ngāi Tahu) i whai atu i a Patterson.

Te Rōpū Rangatahi

Mai i te paunga o te rautau 1800 ka mōhiotia ngā tauira i puta i te Kāreti o Te Aute ko te Rōpū Rangatahi Māori. Ko Te Rangi Hīroa, ko Māui Pōmare me Āpirana Ngata hoki ērā i hua ake hei māngai tautāwhi i te noho me te oranga o te iwi Māori. Ka whakamana rātou i ngā kaupapa i whāia e rātou mā roto tonu i ngā rōpū nunui o te wā, ā, i āhei hoki rātou te takahi ki ngā ao e rua.

Footnotes
    • I takoto ki New Zealand Parliamentary Debates, 14 Here-turi-kōkā 1868, wh. 493. Back

The emergence of the party system

I te tau 1891 ka hangā te rōpū tōrangapū tuatahi – arā, te Rōpū Rīpera. Ka whakatū tēnei rōpū i tētahi kāwanatanga hanganga hou (reform), ā, he nui te Māori ka rāpoi atu.

Nō te tau 1909 ka hua ake tētahi rōpū mautau (conservative) arā, te Rōpū Hanganga Hou. Ko ōna pōti ka ahu mai i ngā kaipāmu me te hunga noho tāone pae oranga waenganui (middle class).

Timi Kara

Nō te tau 1887 ka kōwhiri tuatahitia a Timi Kara (o Ngāti Kahungunu) hei māngai mō Te Tai Rāwhiti. He kaitaunaki tōmua a ia nō te Rōpū Rīpera. I te tau 1892 ka tīpako koia hei minita Māori – te Māori tuatahi kia tū ki tētahi tūranga minita.

Nā te āki o te Rōpū Rīpera i te hoko whenua Māori, ka nunumi atu ngā pōti o Kara i Te Tai Rāwhiti. Heoi nā te mea he Airihi te matua, he Ngāti Kahungunu hoki te māmā, ka whakaaetia kia tū ia ki ngā tūru whānui.

Ka mutu nō te tau 1893 ka toa i a ia te tūru whānui o Waiapu – ā, koia te Māori tuatahi kia wini i tētahi tūru whānui. I te tau 1908 ka tīpakongia ia hei mema pāremata mō te rohe o Tūranga (Gisborne), ā, i ngā tau 1910 me 1911 he wā koia te Pirimia rīwhi.

Wī Pere

I te tau 1884 ka tomokia e Wī Pere (nō Te Aitanga-a-Māhaki me Rongowhakaata) te Whare Pāremata engari i ngā tau 1887 me 1889 ka hinga ia ki a Timi Kara. He kaipīkau ia i te kaupapa Kotahitanga kia kaua te hoko, kia kaua te rīhi whenua Māori. I te tau 1893 ka auraki ia ki te Pāremata i te rironga anō o te tūru o Te Tai Rāwhiti i a ia. I waenganui i ngā tau o 1907 me te tau 1912 ka noho ia ki te Kaunihera Hanga Ture.

Hōne Heke Ngāpua

Ko Hōne Heke Ngāpua (o Ngāpuhi) te māngai o Te Tai Tokerau, ā, mate noa ia i te tau 1909. I whakahāngai ia ki te Rōpū Rīpera. Ko tāna i aru ai, kia whai mana te Tiriti o Waitangi me te hononga o te Māori rāua ko te Karauna.

Āpirana Ngata

Ko Āpirana Ngata (nō Ngāti Porou) te kanohi o Te Tai Rāwhiti mai i te tau 1905 ki te tau 1943. Koia hoki te minita Māori mei i te tau 1928 ki te tau 1934. Nā tōna mātau ki te ao Pākehā me ōna pūmanawa ngaio ka whakahautia e ia tana iwi kia ahuwhenuatia o rātou whenua. I akiaki ano ia kia rarawe ki te ahurea Māori me te tuakiri ake o te Māori.

Taurekareka Hēnare

Ko Taurekareka Hēnare (nō Ngāti Hine me Ngāpuhi) te māngai o Te Tai Tokerau mai i te tau 1914 ki tōna hinganga i a Paraire Paikea i te tau 1938. I te tau 1993 ka riro i tana tuarua i a Tau Hēnare te tūru o Te Tai Tokerau i te wā he mema ia nō Aotearoa Tuatahi. I te tau 2005 ka tū ia hei mema pāremata o Nāhinara.

Māui Pōmare

Ko Māui Pōmare (nō Ngāti Toa me Ngāti Mutunga) anō i whakahāngai ki te Rōpū Hanganga Hou. I te tau 1916 koia te minita Kuki Airini, ā, koia te minita hauora i te tau 1923. Whai muri i te matenga o Pōmare ka kōwhiria ko Tāite Te Tomo (nō Ngāti Tūwharetoa me Ngāti Raukawa) hei māngai mō Te Tai Hauāuru.

Rīpera, Hanganga Hou rānei

Nā ngā Rīpera i whakatū te Kōmihana Whenua Māori hei urupare i ngā nawe whenua. Heoi ko te kāwanatanga Hanganga Hou te tuatahi kia hora i ētahi whakahokinga rawa ki te Māori. Ka whakatakotoria ki a Te Arawa ētahi moni kia tukuna te mana pupuri me te whakamahinga o ngā roto o te rohe o Rotorua. Nāwai ka whakatakotoria anō ki a Tūwharetoa he moni kia tukuna ai te mana ki te hī ki te moana o Taupō me ōna muriwai.

Nā te kāwanatanga Hanganga Hou i whakatū ngā kōmihana whakatewhatewha i ngā nawe mō ngā hēnga me ngā takahi ture e pā ana ki ngā raupatu whenua ki a Ngāi Tahu, ki a Te Whakatōhea, ki a Taranaki me Waikato Tainui. He kaupapa tēnei i tautokona e ngā mema Māori o Rīpera me te rōpū Hanganga Hou. I mahi ngātahi tonu ngā māngai Māori i muri mai hoki i te whakakotahitanga o te rōpū United me te Rōpū Hanganga Hou hei kāwanatanga i te tau 1931.


Rātana, Labour and Mana Motuhake

Ka kitea i te rautau 1900 te puea ake o ētahi rōpū aro tōrangapū Māori. Engari nō te tau 1967 kātahi rawa te kāwanatanga Nāhinara ka whakamahia te tū o tētahi kaitono Māori ki ngā rohe pōti Pākehā. Whāia nō te tau 1975 rawa ka whakaaetia te Māori kia pōti ki te rārangi Māori, ki te rārangi whānui rānei.

Rātana

He hāhi Māori a Rātana, i puawai mai i te poropiti i a Tahupōtiki Wiremu Rātana. Taro iho i tōna tīmatanga urutomo rawatia te kawa tōrangapū i runga i te kaupapa taketake kia whakamanatia te Tiriti o Waitangi. I tōna aropū ki te rawakore me te noho kore whenua o te Māori ka mene katoa ngā iwi Māori o te motu ki a Rātana. Koia te rōpū tōrangapū tuatahi kia arohia e ngā iwi Māori rerekē. Ka riro ki a Rātana te tūru o Te Tai Tonga (atu i te tau 1932), te tūru o Te Tai Hauāuru (atu i te tau 1935) me te tūru o Te Tai Tokerau (atu i te tau 1938).

Te haumitanga o Rātana me Reipa

I te tau 1936 ka haumi a Rātana ki te Rōpū Reipa. Ko te urunga tērā o ngā mema Rātana ki raro ki a Reipa.

Nā te kāwanatanga tuatahi o Reipa i tuku ngā penihana ki te Māori kia noho ōrite ki ērā e whiwhia ana e Tauiwi. Nā runga i tērā ka pūmau te iwi Māori ki a Rātana me te Rōpū Reipa ā tae noa ki te tau 1996. Ko ētahi māngai rongonui o taua wā ko Eruera Tirikātene, ko Iriaka Rātana, ko Whetū Tirikātene-Sullivan (ko rāua ko Iriaka ngā māngai wāhine Māori tuatahi) me Matiu Rata.

Heoi i te kōwhiringa i a Tau Hēnare o Aotearoa Tuatahi hei māngai mō Te Tai Tokerau ka huataki ētahi rerekētanga e pā ana ki ngā rohe pōti Māori.

Iriaka Rātana

Ko Iriaka Rātana (nō Te Āti Haunui-ā-Pāpārangi) te māngai wahine Māori tuatahi i tōna tūnga hei mema pāremata i te tau 1949. I taka ki a ia te tūru Māori o Te Tai Hauāuru nō te matenga o tōna hoa rangatira a Matiu Rātana. Ko Matiu hoki te piki tūranga o tōna tuakana a Haami Tokouru Rātana i te tau 1945. E rua tekau tau te roa i a Iriaka te tūru. I aropū ia ki ngā take pāpori a te iwi.

Whetū Tirikātene-Sullivan

Ko Whetū Tirikātene-Sullivan (nō Ngāi Tahu) hoki te piki tūranga o tōna papa a Eruera Tirikātene ki te tūru o Te Tai Tonga. Nō tōna makeretanga i te tau 1996 koia te mema pāremata wahine roa rawa tana noho ki te whare miere. I tōna wā, i a ia te tūnga minita mō ngā tāpoi, ā, koia anō te minita tuarua ki ngā take whakahiato ora, taiao hoki. I te tau 2011 ka tohua te mokopuna a Eruera, me te irāmutu o Whetū, arā, a Rino Tirikātene hei māngai mō Te Tai Tonga (i mua atu karangahia ai ko te Southern Māori Electorate). I kake a Rino ki te tūranga i mahue i tōna koroua me tōna whāea (arā, e 64 tau te roa, atu i te tau 1932 ki te tau 1996).

Matiu Rata

He mema nō te hāhi Rātana, he kaumoana, he āpiha uniana a Matiu Rata (o Ngāti Kurī). Koia te māngai mō Te Tai Tokerau atu i te tau 1963 ki te tau 1980. I te wā nōna te tūranga minita mō ngā take me ngā whenua Māori (1972-75) ka turuki ia i te kaupapa i whakaturia ai te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi. Nāna te kōrero mō ngā nawe whenua Māori, arā, ‘he tino kaha, nā reira, e kore e taea e te kāwanatanga tika te waiho ngā nawe mehemea ka āta tirohia.’1

I whai wāhi hoki ia ki te whakataunga o te ono o Pēpuere (te rangi i hainatia te Tiriti o Waitangi) hei hararei ā-motu. I te tau 1979 ka mahue i a ia te Rōpū Reipa, ā, i te tau 1980 ka wehe i te Pāremata. He ai ki a ia me aropū rawa te rōpū Reipa ki ngā take Māori.

I tōna ārahi i te rōpū hou o Mana Motuhake ka whakataetae ia i te tūru mō te kōwhiringa ohorere mō te Turu o Te Tai Tokerau. Engari ka hinga ia i te kaitono o Reipa, a Bruce Gregory, ā, kore rawa ia mō te hoki ki te Whare Miere. Nāwai ka hāngai atu ia ki ngā take whenua me ngā kerēme hao ika o Muriwhenua, ā, tae noa ki tōna matenga i te tau 1997.

Mana Motuhake

Ko te kaupapa ake o te rōpū Mana Motuhake he pupuri i te mana whenua Māori. I ngā kōwhiringa i te tau 1981 e 15 ōrau o te pōti Māori ka haere ki te Rōpū Mana Motuhake. I te tau 1990 ka haumi i a ki a Reipa Hou, ā, hua rawa mai ko te Rōpū Tūhono i te tau 1993. Nō te whatinga mai o Eva Tuaiwa Rickard ka whakatū i tōna rōpū hou a te Rōpū o Mana Māori. I whakataetae tēnei rōpū i ngā kōwhiringa o te tau 2002.

Sandra Lee-Vercoe

I te tau 1993 ka riro i a Sandra Lee (nō muri mai ko Sandra Lee-Vercoe) te tūru mō Tāmaki Pokapū. Ko ia te kaiārahi tuarua o Mana Motuhake, me te mema hoki o te haumitanga o Tūhono. Ko Lee te wahine Māori tuatahi kia toa ki tētahi tūru whānui. I ngā tau 1996 me 1999 ka aurakia e ia te Pāremata hei mema rārangi mō Mana Motuhake me Tūhono. I te tau 1999 ka tohua ia hei minita mō ngā kāwanatanga rohe, ā, he maha ngā whakarerekētanga i mahia e ia i ngā kaunihera. Ko Lee hoki te minita taiao me te minita tuarua mō ngā take Māori.

Footnotes
    • I takoto ki ‘Obituary: Matiu Rata’, Independent, 28 Hōngongoi 1997. Back

National, New Zealand First, Māori and Mana parties

I te tau 1993 ka tīmata te tikanga pōti whirirua, arā, te MMP. I taua wā hoki ka kake te tokomaha o ngā tūru Māori. Nā ēnei panonitanga ka whai kanohi ake te Māori ki roto i te Pāremata.

Mana Māori

Mai i te tau 1993 ki te tau 2003 ko te Rōpū Mana Māori te kanohi mō ngā kaupapa tōrangapū i te taha mauī o ngā kaupapa o Mana Motuhake. E rua atu ngā rōpū i uru ki raro i te maru kotahi: arā, ko te Rōpū Piri Wiri Tua (i ahu mai i te Hāhi Rātana) me Te Tāwharau (i ahu mai i te Hāhi Ringatū). Arā anō ngā rōpū iti pērā i a Mauri Pacific (ko Tau Hēnare mā) me Mana Wahine Te Ira Tangata (ko Alamein Kōpū te kaiārahi, mema o mua o Tūhono).

Nāhinara

Ko Ben Couch rāua ko Rex Austin ngā mema pāremata Māori tuatahi i kōwhiria i te tau 1975. Whai muri ko Winston Peters (nō Ngāti Wai me Ngāpuhi) i whai atu i te tau 1979. Ko Couch te minita Māori i te tau 1978. I te urunga anō o Nāhinara hei kāwanatanga i te tau 1990, ka tū ko Peters hei Minita Māori. Nō muri mai ka panaia ia e Nāhinara mō tōna tātā i ngā kaupapa a Nāhinara. I te tau 1993 ka toa i a Peters te tūru o Tauranga mō tōna rōpū hou mō Aotearoa Tuatahi. 

Tokorima kikī

I te tau 1996 ka riro i te ‘tokorima kikī’ o Aotearoa Tuatahi (ko Tau Hēnare rātou ko Tukoroirangi Morgan, ko Rana Waitai, ko Tutekawa Wylie, ko John Delamere) ngā tūru Māori katoa. E rua tau i muri mai ka panaia tō rātou kaiārahi a Winston Peters i te urupū minita, ā, ka tū ki te taha āpiti. Ko Wylie i noho tonu ki Aotearoa Tuatahi, ā, ko Delamere i hono atu ki a Te Tāwharau. I hangaia e Hēnare rātou ko Morgan me Waitai te rōpū hou o Mauri Pacific i te taha o ērā mema o mua o Aotearoa Tuatahi, a Jack Elder rāua ko Ann Batten. Nō te kore eke o tētahi o rātou ka whakakoraratia te rōpū.

Aotearoa Tuatahi

I raro i te mana ārahi o Winston Peters ka riro nga tūru Māori e rima i a Aotearoa Tuatahi i ngā kōwhiringa o te tau 1996. I a ia te mana whiriwhiri i te huanga ake o te kāwanatanga tūhono mō ngā kōwhiringa MMP tuatahi. I mau tonu i a Peters te tūru o Tauranga, ā, 11 kē atu ngā mema rārangi o Aotearoa Tuatahi ka uru atu ki rō Pāremata. Whai muri i te kōwhiringa o te tau 1999 kāore a Aotearoa Tuatahi i whakatū kaitono ki ngā tūru Maori i tōna tautoko kia whakakorea. I te tau 2008 ka taka iho i te 5 ōrau o ngā kaipōti i tautoko i a Aotearoa Tuatahi, ā, ka whakakorehia a Aotearoa Tuatahi i te Pāremata. Heoi i te tau 2011 ka whakamāui ake te rōpū i te hokinga o Peters me ngā kaitono e whitu o Aotearoa Tuatahi ki te Pāremata; i runga i ngā tautoko e 6.6 ōrau te maha.

Rōpū Māori

Nā ngā nawe ki te takutai moana ka hua ake te Rōpū Māori. I raro i te awe o Tariana Turia rāua ko Pita Sharples ka hopu te Rōpū Māori i ngā tūru Māori e whā i te tau 2005; i ngā tūru e rima i te tau 2008; me ngā tūru e toru i te tau 2011. Taro iho i ngā kōwhiringa o 2008 me 2011 ka tāmokotia te whakaaetanga me Nāhinara. I tū ngā kaiārahi e rua ki ngā tūranga minita, engari ki waho tonu i te urupū minita o te kāwanatanga i aratakina e Nāhinara.

Tariana Turia

I uru tuatahi a Tariana Tuatahi (nō Ngāti Apa) ki te Pāremata i te tau 1996 hei mema rārangi o Reipa. I te tau 2002 ka kapo ia i te tūru o Te Tai Hauāuru. I te Haratua o te tau 2004 ka mutu tana mahi mō Reipa i tana whakahē kia tautoko i te Ture Takutai Moana 2004. Nā whai anō ko te wehenga i a Reipa me te Pāremata i tū ai tētahi pōti ohorere ki tōna rohe. I tōna angitu ka uru anō ia ki te Whare Miere hei kaiārahi mō te Rōpū Māori. I a Turia ngā tūranga minita i ngā kāwanatanga o Reipa me te kāwanatanga o Nāhinara hoki.

Pita Sharples

I te tau 2005 ka uru ko Pita Sharples o te Rōpū Māori ki rō pāremata i tōna momoho ki te tūru Māori o Tāmaki makaurau. I te tau 2010 i te wā koia te minita take Māori, ka tāmoko ia i te Whakataunga o te Uepū Motu o te Ao mō ngā Tika Tāngata Whenua.

Hone Harawira

Nā Hone Harawira i para te huarahi mō te hīkoi whakahē i te Ture Takutai Moana 2004. I te tau 2005 me te tau 2008 ka riro i a ia te tūru o Te Tai Tokerau mō te Rōpū Māori. Heoi i te tau 2011 ka rīhaina ia i te Rōpū Māori i tōna panatanga i te pōkai pāremata o te rōpū me ōna tohetohe ki te moetanga o te rōpū me Nāhinara. Nāwai ka toa anō ia ki te pōti ohorere mō Te Tai Tokerau i te Pipiri o te tau 2011. Koia te rangatira o te Rōpū Mana. 

Rōpū o Mana

He rōpū taha mauī a Mana e ū ana ki te whakarauoranga o te iwi Māori. Arā tonu ngā mema Tauiwi o Mana. I te tau 2011 ka mau tonu i a Harawira tōna tūru, engari koia anahe te whetū tārake o te rōpū o Mana.


Hononga, rauemi nō waho

More suggestions and sources


How to cite this page: Ann Sullivan, 'Tōrangapū – Māori and political parties', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/torangapu/print (accessed 6 March 2021)

He kōrero nā Ann Sullivan, i tāngia i te 20 Jun 2012, reviewed & revised 18 Jul 2016