Kōrero: Tuakiri o Aotearoa me te kāwanatanga

Whārangi 2. Mai whenua maru ki whenua motuhake

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

Aotearoa hei whenua maru

I te tau 1840 ka whakatau a Peretānia kia taka a Aotearoa ki raro i te mana o New South Wales. Nō te paunga o taua tau ka whakamanahia a Aotearoa hei whenua maru ake. Whāia, ka tangohia e ia ngā tauira whakahaere kāwanatanga me ngā tikanga tōrangapū o Peretānia.

He kaha ake te pene i te hoari

He wā roa, ā, kātahi anō ka whakauru a Aotearoa ki ngā rūnanga o te ao. Ko tētahi kuhuna tōmua āna, ko te hainatanga a te pirimia a Te Maahi (Massey) i te Tiriti o Versailles i te tau 1919 hei whakamutu i te Pakanga Tuatahi o te Ao. I mua i tēnei, ko ngā pirimia o Ingarangi kē ka haina i ngā tiriti nui mō Aotearoa. Kei te whare pāremata i Te Whanganui-a-Tara te pene i nanao a Te Maahi ki te haina i te tiriti nei.

Ka whakatūria e te kāwanatanga o Peretānia he kāwana hei whakahaere i a Aotearoa, tāpiri atu he kaunihera ture hei āwhina i ngā mahi a te kāwana. Heoi, ko te kaitohutohu matua mō ngā whakahaere ki Aotearoa, ko te tari mō ngā whenua i tāwāhi (Colonial Office), e noho mai rā i Rānana.

Ka tū motuhake te kāwanatanga o Aotearoa

I te tau 1852 ka whakamanahia e te Pāremata o Peretānia te New Zealand Constitutional Act, e tū ai he pāremata (ka pōtitia), te Kaunihera Ture (ka tohungia).I te tau 1854 ka tū te hui tuatahi a te rūnanga nui o te Kāwanatanga (te whare me te kaunihera).

Atu i ngā ture e pā ana ki te iwi Māori, i te tau 1856 i te whakaaetanga kia tū he kāwanatanga whai take (arā, he rūnanga kāwanatanga e tautokona ana e te nuinga o ngā mema o te Pāremata), ka motuhake te tū o te kāwanatanga o Aotearoa. Nō te pokapū o te tekau tau atu i 1860 ka riro te mana whakahaere i ngā kaupapa Māori ki te kāwanatanga o Aotearoa. I te tau 1935, i runga i ngā akiaki a te kāwanatanga Reipa tuatahi, ka riro mā Aotearoa hei whakahaere i āna ake kaupapa ki tāwāhi.

Pokapū pekepeke

I te tau 1840, ko Kororāreka i Pēwhairangi anake te tāone Pākehā āhua nui. Whai muri i te hainatanga o te Tiriti o Waitangi, ka whakatūria e Kāwana Hopihana tana kāwanatanga ki Okiato, ka tapaina e ia te tāone matua hōu, ko Russell. Heoi, i te marama o Hepetema 1840, ka nekehia e Hopihana te pokapū o te kāwanatanga ki ngā tahatika o Te Waitematā, te wāhi tū ai a Ākarana. Hauwarea a Russell te tāone matua tuatahi. I te tau 1865 ka nekehia anōtia te tāone matua mai i Tāmaki-makau-rau ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara.

He whenua kotahi

Nā te Ture Whakamana i te Koroni (Constitution Act) o te tau 1852 i whakatū tētahi momo kāwanatanga, ka tukua he wāhanga o te mana whakahaere ki ngā kāwanatanga ā-rohe. Ka pōti ngā rohe mō ō rātou ake kaunihera, ō rātou ake kaiwhakahaere. I kaha ngā kāwanatanga ā-rohe ki te whakatairanga i a Aotearoa hei kāinga pai mō te tangata; i akiaki rātou i ngā hokonga whenua me te whakawhanake i te whenua. Heoi, i te tau 1876 ka whakakāhoretia ngā kāwanatanga ā-rohe e te Pāremata o runga. Mai i tērā wā ka whakakotahi te kāwanatanga o Aotearoa, ko te Pāremata te nohoanga o te mana. I te tau 1950 ka whakakorehia te Kaunihera Ture (Legislative Council), kia tū kotahi anake te rūnanga o te pāremata, arā, ko te Whare Pāremata.

Te ara ki te mana motuhake

Āta haere noa a Aotearoa i te ara ki tōna rangatiratanga:

  • I te tau 1907, e ono tau i muri i te huihuinga a ngā whenua maru e ono kia tū te Huihuinga o Ahitereiria (Commonwealth of Australia), ka tū a Aotearoa hei tominiana (dominion).
  • I te tau 1947 ka tangohia te pukapuka ture o Westminster (i whakamanahia e te pāremata o Peretānia i te tau 1931) e Aotearoa. Nā tēnei mahi ka pūmau ki te kāwanatanga o Aotearoa anake te mana ki te hanga ture mō Aotearoa.
  • Nā te Ture Whakamana (Constitution Act) o te tau 1986 i tapahi ngā pānga ture mahue o Peretānia ki Aotearoa. Nō konei ka riro ki a Aotearoa ngā kawenga ōkawa mō tōna ake kāwanatanga.
  • I te tau 2003, ka whakakorea te Kaunihera Motuhake a te Kuini (Privy Council) hei kōti pīra teitei mō Aotearoa.

Te tāone matua

I te tau 1840 ka nukuhia te tāone matua mai i Kororāreka i Pēwhairangi ki Tāmaki-makau-rau. Nō te tau 1865 ka nekehia anōtia te pokapū ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

John Wilson, 'Tuakiri o Aotearoa me te kāwanatanga - Mai whenua maru ki whenua motuhake', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/tuakiri-o-aotearoa-me-te-kawanatanga/page-2 (accessed 13 December 2019)

He kōrero nā John Wilson, i tāngia i te 8 Feb 2005, updated 16 Sep 2016