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Nation and government

by  John Wilson

I te wā e noho ana a Aotearoa i raro i te maru o te emepaea o Peretānia, ko ‘God Save the King’ te ngaringari a te motu. Heoi, mai i te tau 1977 kua huri kē te motu ki te waiata i a ‘God defend New Zealand’, tāpaea atu he taha Māori ki te waiata. Pērā i te rarauhe hiriwa, he tohu te ngaringari hōu ki te tū o Aotearoa, he whenua motuhake kei te tonga o Te Moana-nui-a-Kiwa.


The origins of nationhood

Te Tiriti o Waitangi

Nō te tau 1840 ka whānau mai te whenua o Aotearoa. I tērā tau, i te hainatanga o te Tiriti o Waitangi e te kō atu i te e 500 rangatira Māori me ngā māngai o Kuini Wikitōria, ka kuhu a Aotearoa hei whenua maru nā Peretānia. Ko te tiriti te tuhituhinga whakatū ai te whenua nei.

Te wāhanga Pākehā, te wāhanga Māori o te tiriti

I whakatakotoria te tiriti ki te reo Pākehā, kātahi ka hurihia ki te reo Māori. Ko te wāhanga Māori tērā i hainahia e te nuinga o ngā rangatira Māori. Kāore e kore he tirohanga tā tētahi taha ki te tiriti, he tirohanga tā tētahi taha.

Whai muri i te kupu whakataki o te tiriti e mea ana kia hora te rangimārie me te noho pai o te tangata, ko ngā wāhanga e toru. E mea ana te wāhanga tuatahi i roto i te reo Pākehā, ka tukuna e ngā rangatira te ‘sovereignty’ ki te Kuini o Ingarangi. Ko te aronga o te Pākehā ki te kupu ‘sovereignty’ arā, ko te tino rangatiratanga. Heoi, kei te tuhinga Māori o te wāhanga tuatahi e mea ana, ka tukua e ngā Māori ko te ‘kāwanatanga’ kē, kāpā te ‘tino rangatiratanga’. I pōhēhē pea te Māori he rite te ‘sovereignty’ ki te mana o te kāwana o New South Wales e mōhio rā rātou, arā, he mana kei tawhiti, he mana hoki me ngā here kei runga.

E whakaae ana, e whakarite ana te Kuini ki ngā rangatira, ngā hapū, ngā tāngata katoa te mana ki runga i ō rātou whenua, ō rātou kāinga, ō rātou taonga katoa. Waihoki, kei te tuhinga Māori o te wāhanga tuarua e whakaae ana, e whakarite ana te Kuini ki te Māori ‘te tino rangatiratanga’, ko tōna ritenga ko te mana motuhake. Tāpiri atu ki tērā, ka whāiti te whakamāoritanga o ‘Forests, Fisheries and other properties’, ki te kupu ‘taonga’. Nō muri ka whānui te tikanga o te kupu ‘taonga’ kia whai wāhi te reo Māori me ētahi atu taonga.

I tukua e te wāhanga tuatoru o te tiriti ngā ‘tikanga katoa rite tahi ana ki ana mea ki ngā tāngata o Ingarangi’.

Kāore i te āta mōhiotia pēhea te mārama o ngā tāngata o aua wā ki te tiriti, ā, i roto i ngā tau, ka nui ngā tautohetohe mō tōna tikanga, tatū rawa ki ēnei rā. Heoi, ka tareka te kī, i haina ngā rangatira i te tiriti i runga i tō rātou whakaae kia whai wāhi te mana o te Pākehā ki Aotearoa ka tahi, kia tau ngā tāngata o Ingarangi, o Ūropi, o Ahitereiria ki Aotearoa noho ai ka rua. Ki tā rātou titiro, ko te utu mō tēnei, kia noho tonu te mana o te Māori ki ō rātou whenua me ā rātou tikanga; kia mau tonu e ngā rangatira Māori tō rātou tino rangatiratanga.

Te tiriti me te ture

Ko te tiriti tērā kei runga i ngā whakahaere a te Karauna me te Māori. Tautohetia ai tana mana ā-ture i roto i ngā tau; heoi, taea ai ētahi o ana tika te whakaara ā-ture, i ngā wā e tika ana.

He nui ngā tūponotanga

Takoto ai te tārua o te Tiriti o Waitangi i hainahia i te 6 o ngā rā o Pēpuere i te tau 1840, ki te taiwhanga ture o Te Rua Mahara o te Kāwanatanga (Archives New Zealand) i Te Whanganui-a-Tara. Heoi, kāore i tika te manaaki i a ia i roto i ngā tau. I te tau 1841, tata tonu ka tahuna te tiriti i te weranga o ngā tari tūmatanui ki Tāmaki-makau-rau. I ngā tau whakamutunga o te rau tau atu i 1800 i pupuritia te tiriti ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara, ka kainga timotimotia e te kiore, ka mākū i te wai. Nō muri mai ka whakanōhia ki Te Puna Mātauranga o Aotearoa (National Library) kia mātakitakina e te tini me te mano.

Te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi

I whakatūria Te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi (Taraipiunara) i te tau 1975, hei whakarongo ki ngā kerēme a te Māori mō ngā kino o ngā ture me ngā mahi a te Karauna ka pā ki a rātou. I te tau 1985, ka whakamanahia te Taraipiunara kia rongo ki ngā kerēme e pā ana ki ngā mahi a te Karauna mai i te tau 1840. Neke atu i te e 800 ngā kerēme kua takoto ki mua i te aroaro o te Taraipiunara. I eke te kerēme a Ngāi Tahu ki te Taraipiunara mō te waimeha o ngā kupu oati i te hokonga o ōna whenua ki te kāwanatanga i te pokapū o te rau tau atu i 1800. Kua takoto ngā kerēme a etahi iwi o Te Ika-a-Māui mō ō rātou whenua i raupatutia i ngā pakanga i te tekau tau atu i 1860. Ko te mahi a te Taraipiunara, he tāpae tūtohinga ki mua i te aroaro o te kāwanatanga; heoi, kei te kāwanatanga mō te aro atu, te kore aro atu rānei ki ēnei tūtohinga.

Ka taea anō te tono ki te Taraipiunara kia arotakengia tētahi ture hōu tērā pea kāore i te hāngai ki te Tiriti o Waitangi.

Ina takoto ana te tūtohunga a te Taraipiunara mō tētahi kerēme, ko Te Tari Whakatau Take e Pā ana ki te Tiriti o Waitangi (Office of Treaty Settlements) ka whakawhitiwhiti kōrero mō tētahi whakataunga i waenganui i te iwi me te Karauna.


From colony to nation

Aotearoa hei whenua maru

I te tau 1840 ka whakatau a Peretānia kia taka a Aotearoa ki raro i te mana o New South Wales. Nō te paunga o taua tau ka whakamanahia a Aotearoa hei whenua maru ake. Whāia, ka tangohia e ia ngā tauira whakahaere kāwanatanga me ngā tikanga tōrangapū o Peretānia.

He kaha ake te pene i te hoari

He wā roa, ā, kātahi anō ka whakauru a Aotearoa ki ngā rūnanga o te ao. Ko tētahi kuhuna tōmua āna, ko te hainatanga a te pirimia a Te Maahi (Massey) i te Tiriti o Versailles i te tau 1919 hei whakamutu i te Pakanga Tuatahi o te Ao. I mua i tēnei, ko ngā pirimia o Ingarangi kē ka haina i ngā tiriti nui mō Aotearoa. Kei te whare pāremata i Te Whanganui-a-Tara te pene i nanao a Te Maahi ki te haina i te tiriti nei.

Ka whakatūria e te kāwanatanga o Peretānia he kāwana hei whakahaere i a Aotearoa, tāpiri atu he kaunihera ture hei āwhina i ngā mahi a te kāwana. Heoi, ko te kaitohutohu matua mō ngā whakahaere ki Aotearoa, ko te tari mō ngā whenua i tāwāhi (Colonial Office), e noho mai rā i Rānana.

Ka tū motuhake te kāwanatanga o Aotearoa

I te tau 1852 ka whakamanahia e te Pāremata o Peretānia te New Zealand Constitutional Act, e tū ai he pāremata (ka pōtitia), te Kaunihera Ture (ka tohungia).I te tau 1854 ka tū te hui tuatahi a te rūnanga nui o te Kāwanatanga (te whare me te kaunihera).

Atu i ngā ture e pā ana ki te iwi Māori, i te tau 1856 i te whakaaetanga kia tū he kāwanatanga whai take (arā, he rūnanga kāwanatanga e tautokona ana e te nuinga o ngā mema o te Pāremata), ka motuhake te tū o te kāwanatanga o Aotearoa. Nō te pokapū o te tekau tau atu i 1860 ka riro te mana whakahaere i ngā kaupapa Māori ki te kāwanatanga o Aotearoa. I te tau 1935, i runga i ngā akiaki a te kāwanatanga Reipa tuatahi, ka riro mā Aotearoa hei whakahaere i āna ake kaupapa ki tāwāhi.

Pokapū pekepeke

I te tau 1840, ko Kororāreka i Pēwhairangi anake te tāone Pākehā āhua nui. Whai muri i te hainatanga o te Tiriti o Waitangi, ka whakatūria e Kāwana Hopihana tana kāwanatanga ki Okiato, ka tapaina e ia te tāone matua hōu, ko Russell. Heoi, i te marama o Hepetema 1840, ka nekehia e Hopihana te pokapū o te kāwanatanga ki ngā tahatika o Te Waitematā, te wāhi tū ai a Ākarana. Hauwarea a Russell te tāone matua tuatahi. I te tau 1865 ka nekehia anōtia te tāone matua mai i Tāmaki-makau-rau ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara.

He whenua kotahi

Nā te Ture Whakamana i te Koroni (Constitution Act) o te tau 1852 i whakatū tētahi momo kāwanatanga, ka tukua he wāhanga o te mana whakahaere ki ngā kāwanatanga ā-rohe. Ka pōti ngā rohe mō ō rātou ake kaunihera, ō rātou ake kaiwhakahaere. I kaha ngā kāwanatanga ā-rohe ki te whakatairanga i a Aotearoa hei kāinga pai mō te tangata; i akiaki rātou i ngā hokonga whenua me te whakawhanake i te whenua. Heoi, i te tau 1876 ka whakakāhoretia ngā kāwanatanga ā-rohe e te Pāremata o runga. Mai i tērā wā ka whakakotahi te kāwanatanga o Aotearoa, ko te Pāremata te nohoanga o te mana. I te tau 1950 ka whakakorehia te Kaunihera Ture (Legislative Council), kia tū kotahi anake te rūnanga o te pāremata, arā, ko te Whare Pāremata.

Te ara ki te mana motuhake

Āta haere noa a Aotearoa i te ara ki tōna rangatiratanga:

  • I te tau 1907, e ono tau i muri i te huihuinga a ngā whenua maru e ono kia tū te Huihuinga o Ahitereiria (Commonwealth of Australia), ka tū a Aotearoa hei tominiana (dominion).
  • I te tau 1947 ka tangohia te pukapuka ture o Westminster (i whakamanahia e te pāremata o Peretānia i te tau 1931) e Aotearoa. Nā tēnei mahi ka pūmau ki te kāwanatanga o Aotearoa anake te mana ki te hanga ture mō Aotearoa.
  • Nā te Ture Whakamana (Constitution Act) o te tau 1986 i tapahi ngā pānga ture mahue o Peretānia ki Aotearoa. Nō konei ka riro ki a Aotearoa ngā kawenga ōkawa mō tōna ake kāwanatanga.
  • I te tau 2003, ka whakakorea te Kaunihera Motuhake a te Kuini (Privy Council) hei kōti pīra teitei mō Aotearoa.

Te tāone matua

I te tau 1840 ka nukuhia te tāone matua mai i Kororāreka i Pēwhairangi ki Tāmaki-makau-rau. Nō te tau 1865 ka nekehia anōtia te pokapū ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara.


The constitution

Ngā ture, ngā tikanga kāwanatanga

Kāore i tuhia te kaupapa ture o Aotearoa. Kei roto i ngā ture me ngā tikanga a Pāremata ngā tohutohu mō te whakahaere i te whenua.

Ngā ture Pāremata

Nā te Ture Whakamana o te Koroni o te tau 1852 ka tū te pūnaha kāwanatanga o Aotearoa. I roto i nga tau, ka tāpirihia atu e ngā pāremata o Ingarangi me Aotearoa ētahi tikanga i raro i te ture. Nā te Ture Whakamana o te tau 1986 ēnei ture i whakapūmau, ēnei tikanga i whakamārama.

Nā te Electoral Act 1993 i whakatakoto me pēhea te whakahaere i ngā pōti, ko wai ka āhei ki te pōti, ko wai ka āhei kia tū hei mema pāremata.

Ngā tika i raro i te ture

Kāore he Pire mō ngā Tika (Bill of Rights) o Aotearoa kei runga ake i ngā ture whakahaere i a Aotearoa. Tiakina ai ētahi tika e ngā ture noa o te motu. E rua ngā ture ka tiaki i ngā tika a te tangata. Nā te:

  • Ture Pire mō ngā Tika (Bill of Rights) o te tau 1990 i whakatakoto ngā tika mō te tangata i roto i ana whiriwhiringa me te kāwanatanga.
  • Ture Mana Tangata (Human Rights Act) o te tau 1993 i ārai te aukati tangata.

System of government

Te manapori i raro i te pāremata

He manapori a Aotearoa i raro i ngā whakahaere o tētahi pāremata; ko te kuini te māngai. Ko te whare pāremata kua pōtitia anake ka hanga i ngā ture.

Ka ngaro tōna pane

I ngā rā o mua, mau ai te ūpoko o te kīngi, kuini rānei o Peretānia ki ngā reta o Aotearoa. Nō te tau 1855 utaina ai te pane o Kuini Wikitōria ki te tohu reta tuatahi o Aotearoa. I te ekenga o Irihāpeti II hei kuini i te tau 1953, ka puta he tohu reta, ko tōna pane ki runga. Koinei te whakaputanga whakamutunga i kawe i te karauna o Ingarangi. I te tau 1960 ka whakaputangia ngā tohu reta hōu e whakaatu ana i te āhua, te hītori, tae atu ki te noho a te iwi o Aotearoa i te tau 1898. Ināianei, ka whakaatu ngā tohu reta o Aotearoa i te whenua, ngā toi, ngā hanganga whare, ngā hākinakina, arā atu.

Te ūpoko ariki

Ko Kuini Irihāpeti II te ūpoko ariki o Aotearoa. I tōna kakenga hei kuini i te tau 1952, ko te kōrero ki Aotearoa, ko ia te ‘Kuini o tēnei whenua me ērā o ōna whenua’. He motuhake tōna tūranga hei kuini o Aotearoa i tua atu i tōna tūranga hei kuini o Peretānia. Ko te kāwana tianara tōna māngai ki Aotearoa. Kāore ōna mana whakahaere kāwanatanga; kei te pirimia tērā mana.

Tuhia ai te āhua o te Kuini ki ngā nōti, ngā kotahi tāra me ngā rua tāra (heoi, kua kore e tāngia ki te nuinga o ngā tohu reta). Ahakoa kei te whakamahia tonutia te āhua o te Kuini, ehara tēnei i te tohu kei te noho a Aotearoa i raro i te mana o Ingarangi, he whakaaturanga kē o te hononga o ngā whenua e rua i roto i ngā tau.

Kei te Pāremata (te kuini me te Whare Pāremata) te tino rangatiratanga o Aotearoa. Kāore e taea e te whare pāremata anake te whakamana ture, mā te tautoko rā anō a te kuini, a tana māngai rānei, kātahi anō ka mana. Ko te tikanga, tukua noatia ai tēnei tautoko.

Ka kōrero te tangata mai i Aotearoa mō ‘te Karauna’; kāore ia i te kōrero mō te Kuini, kei te kōrero kē ia mō te kāwanatanga puta noa.

Te kāwana tianara tuatahi mai Aotearoa

Mō hia ngā tau, ka ahu mai ngā kāwana tianara o Aotearoa i te kāhui rangatira o Ingarangi. Ko te tangata tuatahi nō Aotearoa kia whakataua hei kāwana tianara ko Tā Arthur Porritt i te tau 1967. He toa ia i whiwhi mētara i ngā Taumāhekeheke o te Ao. Atu i te tau 1923 ka noho a Porritt ki Ingarangi, ka mutu tōna wā hei kāwana tianara, ka hoki a ia ki Ingarangi okioki ai. Whai muri i a ia, nō Aotearoa katoa ngā kāwana tianara.

Te kāwana tianara

Kawea ai e te kāwana tianara te mana whakahau o te Karauna ki Aotearoa. Tohungia ai ia e te Kuini i runga i ngā tohutohu atu a te pirimia. I te tau 1917, ka whakarerekētia te ingoa o te kāwana kia tū mai, ko te kāwana tianara.

Ko te mahi nui a te kāwana tianara, ko te tono i te kaitaki o te rōpū nui i te Pāremata kia whakatū kāwanatanga (me kī, whai muri i ngā pōti). Mā te kāwana tianara anō e uhi i te mana o te Karauna ki ngā hanganga ture o te Pāremata, ā, koia hoki te ngārahu matua o ngā ope taua.

E ai ki ngā tikanga, me whai te kāwana tianara i ngā tohutohu a ngā minita, nō te mea kei te tautokona rātou e te nuinga o ngā mema o te pāremata.

Pāremata

Kotahi anake te taiwhanga pāremata o Aotearoa, ko te Whare Pāremata tērā. Nō te tau 1852 hangaia ai te Kaunihera Ture (Legislative Council) i raro i te Ture Whakamana o te Koroni (Constitution Act) 1852; nō te tau 1950 ka whakakorea.

Ko ngā mana nui a te Whare Pāremata ko te:

  • whakaae ki te kāwanatanga ki te kohi me te whakapau moni
  • whakatau ture.

Tohungia ai te Pika o te Whare Pāremata e ngā mema.

Kīhai i whai i te tikanga

Heahea te takoto o te whare mīere o Aotearoa. Ko ngā whare matua e toru o te pāremata ko te whare pukapuka - i te momo Victorian Gothic - i hangaa i te tau 1899, te whare pāremata - i te momo Edwardian Baroque - i hangaa i nga tau tōmua o te rau tau atu i 1900 (he wāhanga nō tētahi whare nui atu i whakaarohia), tae atu ki te ‘whare mīere’ i hangaa i te paunga o te rau tau atu i 1900.

Rūnanga kāwanatanga

Ko te rūnanga kāwanatanga te huinga mana tōrangapū nui rawa. Ko ngā tāngata o roto he minita katoa nā te Karauna. Ko te pirimia te kaiwhakahaere. Ahu mai ai te mana o te rūnanga kāwanatanga i ngā tikanga kāwanatanga. Nā te Ture Whakamana o te tau 1986 i whakamārama, ko ngā mema pāremata anake ka āhei te tū hei minita.

Kaunihera Whiriwhiri (Executive Council)

Nō te tau 1840 ka whakatūria te Kaunihera Whiriwhiri (Executive Council). Ko te kāwana tianara tōna kaiwhakahaere. Motuhake te tū a te Kaunihera Whiriwhiri i te rūnanga kāwanatanga. Ahakoa te whakakorenga o tana mana ki te whakatau kaupapa, kei a ia tonu ētahi kawenga i raro i te ture. Kei a ia hoki te mana ki te hanga whakahau ā-ture (i raro i te mana ka tohua e te Pāremata).


The electoral system

Āheinga kia pōti

Ko ngā kirirarau me ngā kainoho neke atu i te 18 tau te pakeke ka āhei kia pōti mō te whare pāremata. I te tau 1893 ka tukua te mana pōti ki te wahine.

Āhei kia tū mō te Pāremata

Ko ngā kirirarau o Aotearoa anake ka āhei te tū hei mema ki te Whare Pāremata. I te tau 1919 ka tukua te wahine kia tū hei mema pāremata.

Te wā ka noho te Whare Pāremata

E toru tau te roa o ia pāremata. Ka taea e te pirimia te kati ohorere i te pāremata mā te tono ki te kāwana tianara me te karanga pōti ohorere.

Te rahi o te Pāremata

E 120 ngā mema o te whare pāremata i te tau 2004, arā, e 62 ngā tūru mō ngā rohe, e whitu ngā tūru Māori, e 51 ngā tūru ki ngā rōpū. Tērā pea ka rerekē te rahi o ngā tūru, i runga tonu i te putanga o te pōti nui.

Te tikanga pōti

Mō te nuinga o te rau tau atu i 1900, ko te tikanga pōti ki Aotearoa ko te ‘mua kai kai’ (FPP). I raro i tēnei tikanga, ko te kaitono ka riro i te nuinga o ngā pōti ki tētahi rohe pōti, koia ka kuhu ki te Pāremata.

Nā tētahi whakataunga i te tau 1993 ka tohu ki te hiahia o te taupori kia whirirua (MMP) te tikanga pōti. Hei tēnei tikanga, e rua ngā kōwhiringa mō te tangata:

  • Tuatahi, ko te pōti mō te rōpū tōrangapū e hiahiatia ana hei kāwanatanga. Me kī, ka nui atu ngā pōti a tētahi rōpū, ka nui atu hoki ana tāngata ki roto Pāremata.
  • Tuarua, ko te pōti ā-rohe, arā, mō te tangata hei mema pāremata mō te rohe pōti. Ko te tangata ka riro i te nuinga o ngā pōti ka tohua hei mema pāremata mō taua rohe.

Mā te korahi o ngā pōti mō te rōpū tōrangapū e tohu ka hia ngā mema pāremata ka whiwhi te rōpū. Hei tauira, ki te riro e tētahi rōpū te e 50% o ngā pōti rōpū, ka whiwhi taua rōpū ki te haurua o ngā tūru ki roto o pāremata. Mēnā kāore e eke ngā tūru ā-rohe a tētahi rōpū ki te taumata e tika ana, ka tīkina he tāngata i te ‘rōpū rārangi’ o taua rōpū hei whakakī i ērā tūranga. Ko te rārangi rōpū nei, o ngā kaitono o te rōpū; kei runga rawa o te rārangi ngā tāngata e tino hiahiatia ana hei mema Pāremata, ā, heke haere. Ka takoto e ia rōpū tōrangapū tāna rārangi i mua i te pōti whānui.

Ka āhei ngā rōpū tōrangapū te whakauru ki Pāremata ngā mema ā-rohe rātou ko ngā mema mai i tō rātou rārangi rānei, ngā mema mai i tō rātou rārangi anake rānei (mēnā ka riro e te rōpū te e 5% o ngā pōti, engari kāore e riro he pōti ā-rohe). Ka whiwhi mema pāremata ngā rōpū tōrangapū i runga i te rahi o ngā pōti rōpū ka whiwhi rātou. Ki te whiwhi rohe pōti tētahi rōpū, ka āhei ia ki ngā mema Pāremata e tika ana ki a ia, hāunga te mea kei raro iho i te e 5% ā rātou pōti rōpū. Heoi, ki te kore e whiwhi tētahi rōpū i tētahi tūru rohe pōti, ki te kore hoki e eke ana pōti rōpū i te e 5%, kāore ia e whiwhi tūru ki te Pāremata.

Ngā tūru Māori

Mai anō i te tau 1867 he tūru Māori ki roto i te Pāremata. I raro i te kōwhiringa pōti o te tau 1975, ka taea e te Māori te kuhu ki te kōwhiringa nui, ki te kōwhiringa Māori rānei. E whitu ngā tūru Māori i te tau 2004. Kei runga te maha o ēnei tūru i te kaha o te iwi Māori kia kuhu ki te rārangi pōti Māori.

Ngā rōpū kei Pāremata

Ko te rōpū tōrangapū nui o te Pāremata, koia ka āhei kia whakatū kāwanatanga. E kore pea e riro ki tētahi rōpū kotahi te mana kāwanatanga i raro i te tikanga pōti whirirua (MMP), pērā i te wā o te tikanga pōti ‘mua kai kai’ (FPP). Nā reira, ki te tū kāwanatanga, ka tahuri ngā rōpū ki te mahi tahi, ahakoa ētahi wā, he kāwanatanga tokoiti.

He wāhi nui tō ngā uepū (kāhui mema pāremata o tētahi rōpū tōrangapū), heoi, pērā i te rūnanga kāwanatanga, ka whai ngā uepū i ngā tikanga kāwanatanga.


The state sector and Crown entities

He aha te rāngai kāwanatanga?

Ko te rāngai kāwanatanga ka hanga, ka whakatinana i ngā kaupapa a te kāwanatanga. Whai wāhi ai ngā tari kāwanatanga pērā i Te Tāhuhu o te Mātauranga, te Reserve Bank of New Zealand, Te Tari Taake ki tēnei huinga. He kawenga ō te nuinga o rātou ki tētahi minita o te Karauna.

Ngā āpiha o te Whare Pāremata

He tūranga ruarua kei te rāngai kāwanatanga ka noho ki kō atu i te mana o te kāwanatanga, arā, ko ngā āpiha o te Whare Pāremata, te:

  • Poungaio (ombudsman)
  • mana arotake (controller and auditor general)
  • kaitiaki taiao a te Whare Pāremata (parliamentary commissioner for the environment)

Ko te mahi a ngā āpiha nei, he tātari i ngā mahi a te kāwanatanga, ka tuku pūrongo ki te Whare Pāremata.

Ngā manatū me ngā tari

Kotahi anake te mahi a ētahi manatū, tari rānei, arā, he tuku whakamaherehere ki ō rātou minita mō ngā kaupapa ka pā. Ko ētahi atu tari ka whakahaere kaupapa. Hei tauira, ko te mahi a Te Papa Atawhai he tohutohu i tōna minita ki ngā take taiao, he whakahaere i ngā whenua rāhui o te Karauna.

Ngā hanganga Karauna (Crown entities)

Kō atu i te e 3,000 ngā hanganga Karauna ka āwhinatia ā-pūteatia e te kāwanatanga ki te mahi i te huhua o ngā mahi. Ko ētahi o ngā hanganga Karauna nui ko ngā:

  • poari hauora ā-rohe e iwa ka whakahaere i ngā hōhipera o te whenua.
  • pūtahi rangahau rua tekau mā tahi a te Karauna
  • whare wānanga rīroa e waru, ngā kuratini e rua tekau, ngā whare takiura e whā hoki.

(Whakaratohia ai e te kāwanatanga he pūtea ki te nuinga o ngā kura tuatahi me ngā kura tuarua, heoi, ehara rātou i te hanganga kāwanatanga).

I ahatia ngā poutāpeta?

Tae rawa ki te tau 1984, ko te poutāpeta kei te manawa o ngā tāone puta i Aotearoa. He tari kāwanatanga te poutāpeta, ko tāna, he whakahaere i te poutāpeta, ngā waea kōrero me te pēke a te Poutāpeta. Koinei tētahi o ngā whakahaere nui rawa o te whenua i ōna rā. I te tau 1900, e 1,700 ngā peka poutāpeta mō te taupori e 800,000 te nui. I runga anō i ngā hanganga ture hou i muri i te poti i te tau 1984, ka wāwāhia te tari i te tau 1987. Ka noho a New Zealand Post hei hanganga kāwanatanga tonu, engari i hokona te pūnaha waea rāua ko te pēke. Ka katia te rahi o ngā poutāpeta, ka tū mai ko ngā toa poutāpeta kē.

Ngā hinonga Kāwanatanga

I te tau 1984, ka huri te kāwanatanga ki te hoko i ana rawa arumoni pērā i ngā rerewē, te pūnaha waea, te pēke, te pūnaha hiko hoki.

E pupuri tonu ana te kāwanatanga i ētahi hinonga arumoni pērā i ngā kamupene hiko me ngā poutāpeta. E karangatia ana ēnei he hinonga kāwanatanga (state-owned enterprise).


The legal system

Te wehe i ngā mana

He motuhake te tū o te rāngai ture (ngā kaiwhakamārama, kaiwhakatinana i ngā ture) i te rōpū hanga ture (ko te pāremata tēnei), i te mana whakahaere (te rōpū whakahaere i te kāwanatanga). Ko te kāwana tianara ka tohu i ngā kaiwhakawā. Nā runga i ngā tikanga kāwanatanga (conventions) kāore e taea e te kāwanatanga te tohutohu i ngā kaiwhakawā. Kei te Ture Whakamana (Constitution Act) e takoto ana ngā wā ruarua ka taea te pana kaiwhakawā.

Ngā kōti

Te tātai o ngā kōti o Aotearoa:

  • ngā kōti ā-rohe
  • te Kōti Teitei
  • te Kōti Pīra
  • te Kōti Matua, nāna i whakakapi te Komiti Ture o te Kaunihera Motuhake o te Kuini (Privy Council) i te tau 2003, ka puritia ki te Kōti Matua te whakataunga whakamutunga mō ngā pīra ā-ture o Aotearoa.

Ko te mahi a ngā kaiwhakawā i ngā kōti o Aotearoa, he whakarongo ki ngā kōrero a tētahi taha, a tētahi taha, ka whakaputa he whakataunga. Takea mai ai tēnei tikanga ture i Peretānia.

Ētahi momo kōti

He wāhanga te Kōti Whānau me te Kōti Taiohi o ngā kōti ā-rohe. Tātaringia ai e te Kōti take ā-Mahi (Employment Court) ngā kerēme i raro i te Ture Whakawhanaunga ā-mahi (Employment Relations Act); ko te mahi a te Kōti Taiao he whakarongo ki ngā kerēme ka taka mai ki raro i te Ture Tiaki i ngā Hua o te Taiao (Resource Management Act). Ko te mahi a te Kōti Whenua Māori he tirotiro i ngā kerēme whenua e pā ana ki te Māori.

Ngā mana whakaāio (justices of the peace) me ngā taraipiunara.

Ko te mahi a te hunga ka tohungia hei mana whakaāio, he whakahaere i ētahi mahi iti i te ture. He mana ā-ture kei ētahi taraipiunara, kōmihana, manatū hoki. He tūranga keretao noa iho tō ētahi. Tū ai ngā kōmihana rangahau mō tētahi wā hei āta rangahau i tētahi take ake.

Te ture

E whai ake nei ko ngā ture ka whakatauhia e ngā kōti o Aotearoa:

  • Ture tuku iho (common law). I te tau 1840 ka mana te ture tuku iho o Ingarangi ki Aotearoa. Ināianei, ka taka mai ki roto i ngā ture tuku iho o Aotearoa ētahi o ngā whakataunga a ngā kōti o Aotearoa.
  • Ture kāwanatanga (statute law). Koinei ngā ture o nāianei, o te whare pāremata o Aotearoa.
  • Ture kāwanatanga o Ingarangi (United Kingdom statute law). Iti noa ngā ture o Ingarangi kei te pā tonu ki ngā ture o Aotearoa.
  • Ture iti (subordinate legislation). Hangaia ai ngā rekureihana i raro i te mana o Pāremata. Kei ngā mana ā-rohe te tikanga ki te hanga ture ā-rohe.

Local government

He tūranga iti

Tū motuhake ai ngā mana ā-rohe o Aotearoa, engari kei raro rātou i te mana o te kāwanatanga ā-motu. Ka tuku whakaaetanga ngā kāwanatanga ā-rohe mō ngā kaupapa ki raro i te Ture Tiaki i ngā Hua o te Taiao (Resource Management Act). Ko te Kōmihana Kāwanatanga ā-Rohe (Local Government Commission) ka whakatau i ngā rohe o ngā mana ā-rohe.

Ngā mana whakahaere ā-rohe

E 76 ngā kaunihera tāone (ko te nuinga he noho tāone), kaunihera ā-rohe (taiwhenua anake, taiwhenua me te tāone rānei) hoki. Ko ngā take ka pā ki ia hapori ka whakahaeretia e ngā poari hapori e 147; me pōtitia te tangata e kake ai ia ki ēnei tūranga. Ka whāngaihia rātou ki te pūtea e ngā kaunihera ā-tāone, ā-rohe rānei. Me tuku rīpoata anō ngā poari nei ki ngā kaunihera. He nui ngā ratonga a ngā kaunihera, atu i te whakahaere i ngā whare pukapuka ki te whakawātea i ngā parahanga.

Ngā kaunihera ā-rohe

Tekau mā ono ngā kaunihera ā-rohe e whakahaere ana i ngā mahi taiao me ngā waka kawe tūmatanui. Kapi ai e ētahi kaunihera ētahi tāone, takiwā rānei. E whā ngā kaunihera ka noho hei kaunihera tahi, arā, he kaunihera mō te rohe, mō te tāone, mō te takiwā hoki.

Ngā pōti ā-rohe

Ia toru tau ka tū ngā kōwhiringa mō ngā kaunihera tāone, kaunihera takiwā, tae atu ki ngā poari hapori. He pōti anō mō ngā mea o ngā tāone me ngā takiwā.

Ngā tāke ā-rohe

Kei ngā kaunihera tāone, kaunihera takiwā, kaunihera ā-rohe te mana ki te whakatau tāke (tāke whenua, whare hoki) hei utu i ā rātou mahi.


Nationhood and identity

Te ingoa o te whenua nei

Nā tētahi kaimātai mahere whenua nō Hōrano pea te ingoa New Zealand i tapa, whai muri i te taunga mai o te kaihōpara a Abel Tasman i te tau 1642. Koia te Pākehā tuatahi kia tae ki Aotearoa. I tērā wā, mōhiotia ai a Ahitereiria ko Hōrano Hōu (New Holland). Nā reira ka tapaina a Aotearoa ko Zeeland, tērā atu o ngā porowini matua o Hōrano.

Ko te ingoa nui a te Māori mō tēnei whenua ko Aotearoa. Ko te kōrero a ētahi, nā Kupe i tapa te ingoa o Aotearoa; heoi, nō te paunga o te rau tau atu i 1800, ka whānui te whakahuatia o taua ingoa. He ingoa atu anō ō te Māori mō ngā motu nui e rua, arā, ko Te Ika-a-Māui me Te Wai Pounamu.

Kirirarau o Aotearoa

Nā te ture British Nationality and New Zealand Citizenship (1948) ka tū te kirirarau o Aotearoa. Nō te tau 1977 rā anō unuhia ai ngā kupu ‘kirirarau Peretānia’ i ngā uruuruwhenua o Aotearoa.

Tata ki te katoa o ngā tāngata i whānau mai ki Aotearoa, he kirirarau nō Aotearoa. Whai muri i ētahi whakamātautau noho, whakamātau mō te reo Ingarihi, ka āhei ngā manene te tono mō te kiriraraunga.

Te haki o Aotearoa

Kei tētahi wāhi o te haki o Aotearoa, ko te tohu o te tieki o Ingarangi, kei tētahi taha ko ngā whetū whero e whā, he tohu mō te Taki o Autahi (Southern Cross), he tātai whetū kei te rangi – he whero te tae o ngā whetū, e whā ngā mata o ia whetū. He kikorangi te tae o muri.

I tauirahia mai tēnei haki i te haki kikorangi o Peretānia o te tau 1869. Nō te tau 1902 ka whakamanatia te haki hei kapa mō Aotearoa.

Te waitohu o Aotearoa

Nō te tau 1911 ka puta te waitohu o Aotearoa, ā, nō te tau 1956 ka whakaritea. Ka whakaatatia e te waitohu te wāhi nui ki Aotearoa o ngā hokohoko ki-taio, te ahuwhenua me te keri manawa whenua.

Ngaringari a te motu

E rua ngā ngaringari ā-motu o Aotearoa. I te tau 1840 ka tīmata te waiata i a, ‘God save the Queen (King rānei)’. Nō te tau 1940 ka tīmata te whakamahinga o ‘God defend New Zealand’ hei ngaringari ā-motu, ā, i te tau 1977 ka whakamanahia tērā waiata kia rite ki ‘God Save the Queen’. Ka waiatatia he whiti Māori i mua i te whiti Pākehā.

‘Āta whakarongona’

 

I te tau 1940 ka hokona e te kāwanatanga te manatārua o ‘God defend New Zealand’ - nā Thomas Bracken i tito – mai i tētahi kamupene oro o Ōtepoti. Whāia, ka whakamanahia tēnei waiata hei ngaringari ā-motu tuarua. Nō ngā tau whakamutunga o te rau tau atu i 1900, ka whakamahia whānuitia ko tēnei o ngā ngaringari ā-motu, hauwarea te waiata ā-motu o Ingarangi, a ‘God save the King’. He nui ngā pātai mō tētahi wāhanga o te ngaringari ā-motu, arā, ngā kupu e mea ana ‘guard Pacific’s triple star’. Ko tētahi whakamārama e mea ana, e pā ana tēnei kōrero ki ngā moutere nui e toru o Aotearoa.

 

Ngā reo ā-ture

E rua ngā reo ā-ture o Aotearoa, ko te reo Pākehā me te reo Māori. Nō te tau 1987 ka whakaturehia te reo Māori hei reo mō tēnei motu. I te tau 2004 i te whiriwhiria te reo rotarota hei reo ā-ture tuatoru mō Aotearoa.

Ngā hararei ā-motu

E rua ngā rā hararei ka pā ki te tuakiri o te motu. Hei whakanui i te hainatanga o te Tiriti o Waitangi i te tau 1840, ka whakanuia te rā o Waitangi ia tau i te 6 o ngā rā o Pēpuere. Mai anō i te tau 1974 kua tū tēnei rā hei hararei ā-motu. Ko tētahi atu rā hararei ko 25 o Āperira, te rā o ANZAC, he whakamaumaharatanga ki ngā hōia o te Pakanga Tuatahi o te Ao i tau ki Karipori, kei te taha uru o Whenua Korukoru, i te tau 1915.

Ahakoa noho wehe ai ngā hāhi i te kāwanatanga, tū tonu ai ngā rā o te Āranga me te Kirihimete hei hararei whānui. Ko ngā hararei noa, ko te rā o Reipa, te rā whānau o te Kuini o Ingarangi, tae atu ki ngā rā huritau o ngā porowini. Ka tū ngā rā hararei a ngā porowini i te rā, i te takiwā rānei o te rā i hua mai ai taua porowini.

Te taonga kāmehameha o te pāua

 

He kai nui te pāua (Haliotis iris, he whanaunga ki te pāua o te raki o te Pacific) ki te Māori. I ēnei rā, manakotia ai te pāua e te tini me te mano, hokona ai te ngako ki tāwāhi. He mea nui ki te Māori ngā tae o te anga pāua hei hoahoa i ngā whakairo (mō ngā kanohi o ngā poupou i te wharenui), hei taonga tuku, hei kahurangi rānei.

 

Te kararehe me te pua ā-motu

Ahakoa kāore ōna tūranga hei tohu whai mana, ka tū te kiwi hei tohu mō Aotearoa. Karekau he putiputi nui o Aotearoa; heoi, he tohu nui te rarauhe hiriwa (kāore i whakamanahia ā-turetia) mō Aotearoa, e mau ana ki ngā kākahu o ngā hōia me ngā rōpū hākinakina. Ko ētahi atu tohu ā-motu noa, ko te pōhutukawa me te kōwhai.

Ngā taonga noa ki Aotearoa)

Kīia ai ngā mea noa e whai wāhi nui ana ki a Aotearoa, he ‘kiwiana’. Ko ētahi o ēnei momo taonga ko ngā kamupūtu pango, te taputapu ngahau a te Buzzy Bee, te purini pavlova, te tiki kirihou, ngā ipu pungarehu pāua, ngā kōtiro rangatū me ngā okouku o te rerewē.


New Zealand in the world

Te marumaru

He whenua iti a Aotearoa, ahakoa te roa o tōna ākau. He nui ngā hokohoko ki ngā whenua kei tērā pito o te ao.

Ngā here ki Ingarangi

Nō te tau 1840 ka tū a Aotearoa hei whenua maru o Ingarangi. I pūmau ngā Pākehā (ko te nuinga nō Peretānia) o tēnei motu ki Peretānia. Hei tā rātou, he mea pai kia kapi te ao katoa i te mana o Peretānia. I mua i te hingatanga o Hingapoa i te tau 1942, i pōhēhē te iwi o Aotearoa ka tiakina tēnei whenua e te ope moana o Ingarangi. Tū ai ngā toa o Aotearoa ki ngā pakanga e rua o te ao.

Ka piri ki Te Hononga o Amerika

I te pakanga nui ki Te Moananui-a-Kiwa i te wā 1941-1945, nā Amerika a Aotearoa i whakamarumaru i ngā riri o Hapanihi. I te tau 1951 ka whakakotahi a Aotearoa, a Amerika, a Ahitereiria i te tūhono ANZUS. I te tau 1984 ka motu te herenga ki ANZUS, i te kore whakaae o Aotearoa kia tau ngā kaipuke pūngao karihi.

He whenua kei te tonga o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa

He hononga tata ō Aotearoa ki ngā moutere o Kuki Airani, o Niue, o Tokelau. He kirirarau o Aotearoa ngā tāngata o ēnei motu. He whenua motuhake a Kuki Airani me Niue, e whakaae ana rāua kia whai wāhi ki tētahi hononga ki Aotearoa. He takiwā a Tokelau e tiakina ana e Aotearoa; heoi, kei te iwi o Niue te nuinga o ōna kawenga kāwanatanga. Ko te titiro, tērā tonu pea ka rite a Tokelau ki a Kuki Airani me Niue, arā, ka tū hei whenua motuhake e piri ana ki a Aotearoa. Kei roto a Aotearoa i te huinga o ngā iwi o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa (Pacific Forum). Ko ētahi atu mema ko ngā moutere o te tonga o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa, ko Ahitereiria, ko Papua Nūkini.

Ahitereiria

Ko Ahitereiria te whenua tata rawa ki a Aotearoa, ā, koia te tino haumi o Aotearoa, tōna tino hoa tauhokohoko nui rawa atu. Mai i te tau 1983 ka tata atu te piringa ōhanga o ngā whenua nei. Kāore a Aotearoa i whakaae kia kuhu ki te whakakotahitanga o Ahitereiria i te tau 1901; hāunga tērā, taea noatia e te tangata te whakawhiti mai i tētahi whenua ki tētahi whenua ki te noho, ki te rapu mahi hoki. Mai anō, whakataetae ai ngā whenua nei tētahi ki tētahi; hāunga tērā, he rite ētahi o ā rāua tikanga ahurea. Whakanuia ai te rā o ANZAC e ngā whenua e rua nei. Koinei te rā whakamahara i ngā hōia o ēnei whenua i hinga ki Karipori i te tau 1915.

Ngā rōpū o te ao

He hononga ō Aotearoa ki ngā whenua maha o te ao. He tūranga tō Aotearoa ki ngā huihuinga nui o te ao, mā roto i Te Kotahitanga o ngā Whenua o te Ao (United Nations) me te Huihuinga o ngā iwi o Ingarangi (Commonwealth). I te hui tuatahi o Te Kotahitanga o ngā Whenua o te Ao i te tau 1945, ka whakahau a Aotearoa i te minenga kia arongia ngā whenua ririki. Ahakoa whenua iti, ka rongohia te reo o Aotearoa ki te Huihuinga o ngā iwi o Ingarangi.

Ross Dependency

 

I tapaina te rohenga whenua o Aotearoa i te Tiri o te Moana ki te Tonga, ki a Tā James Clark Ross, te kaihōpara rongonui o Peretānia. I te tau 1957 ka tīmata a Aotearoa ki te whakaputa pane kuini o Ross Dependency. I taua tau anō ka whakatūria he poutāpeta ki Scott Base, i te haerenga tuatahitanga o ngā tāngata ki reira noho ai mō tētahi wā roa. I te tau 1967 ka puta ngā pane kuini Ross Dependency hōu, i te panonitanga ki te pūnaha moni hōu.

 

Tauhokohoko ki-tai

He mea nui ki te ōhanga o Aotearoa ngā mahi tauhokohoko ki-tai. Kei roto a Aotearoa i te World Trade Organisation (WTO), te Asia Pacific Economic Co-operation Forum (APEC) me te Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Tohetohe ai a Aotearoa kia tuwhera ngā tauhokohoko o te ao, tae rawa ake ki ngā ahuwhenua.

Te Tiri o te Moana ki te Tonga

He pānga nui tō Aotearoa ki te Tiri o te Moana ki te Tonga, ā, koia tētahi o ngā kaihaina tuatahi o te Antarctic Treaty (1959). Whakahaerehia ai e Aotearoa te Ross Dependency.


How to cite this page: John Wilson, 'Tuakiri o Aotearoa me te kāwanatanga', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/tuakiri-o-aotearoa-me-te-kawanatanga/print (accessed 17 October 2019)

Story by John Wilson, published 8 Feb 2005, updated 16 Sep 2016