Kōrero: Waiata tawhito

Whārangi 4. Haka

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Te haka – he momo nō te waiata

Ka tarea te kī he peka te haka nō te waiata, he tūmomo waiata. I te tau 1975 ka whakamahuki a Arapeta Marukitipua Awatere i ngā tūāhua o ngā tūmomo haka. E kī ana ia, ‘Kei tēnā momo, kei tēnā momo anō tōnā ake āhua, me ōna ake ringa, tū, rākau, whakatautau ki te whakatau i tētahi āhuatanga ā-iwi, ahakoa he kikokiko, he tohu wairua rānei taua tūāhua.’1 E rima ngā momo haka ka whakarārangitia e Awatere:

  • he haka taparahi – he haka kore rākau
  • he tūtūngārahu (he ngārahu, he whakatūtū-waewae, he whakarewarewa ki ētahi) – he haka tū taua, he haka mau rākau ka tūria ki mua i ngā ika-ā-whiro me ngā māia hei whakamātautau ki te whare o te riri
  • he ngeri – he haka e whakahau ana i te iwi kia eke panuku. He haka kore rākau hoki
  • he peruperu – ko te tino haka tū taua tēnei, ka whakaitaita ki te rākau, ka whakaitoito i te hoariri
  • he puha – he momo peruperu ka hakaina hei whakaaraara i te matamata huānga kia ara. Kāore i mahia ki matawhāura, engari ka whakahautia ki ngā pā kāinga haumi (hāunga anō te peruperu ka whakamahia ki matawhāura). 

Peruperu

Ko te peruperu te haka tū taua i ngā pehu kaitangata. E kī ana a Awatere ko tēnei ‘te tino haka tū taua’:

Mā ngā haratau whakauaua ka mārohirohi te tinana me te hinengaro kia kotahi ki te haka nei. Ko tōna he whākana, he whakapōhane, he ngengere, he whakaue, he tīkoro, he whakakaitoa i te hoariri ki te whātero, ki te whakahako, ki te puha, ki te patero uerangi o te atua nguha; he pohū, he tātaka, he tīoro i te āinga o hikareia ki te mura o te ahi.2

Ngā ingoa ā-iwi mō ngā momo haka

Kei tēnā iwi, kei tēnā iwi ōna kārangaranga ingoa mō ngā tū haka. Ka mutu i tuhia e Awatere ngā ingoa ā-iwi. Ki a Te Arawa, ka mōhiotia anō te peruperu he puha. Ko te maemae, ka kīia he pōkeka ki a Te Arawa, he ngākau-maemae, he kiriwera rānei ki a Ngāti Porou, ā, he manawawera ki a Ngāi Tūhoe. Ko te ngārahu, ko te tū ngārahu rānei he whakarewarewa ki a Te Arawa, he whakatūwaewae ki a Ngāti Porou, he tūtūngārahu ki a Waikato.

Haka pōwhiri

Ko te haka pōwhiri ka hakaina i ngā pōwhiri ki te manuhiri. Ahakoa ka mahia whānuitia te haka pōwhiri, ko Ngāti Porou me Te Whānau-a-Apanui anake ngā iwi ko ngā wāhine kē ka taki i te haka.

Kupu tāpiri
  1. Arapeta Awatere, ‘Review of Mitcalfe, Barry. Maori poetry: the singing word.’ Journal of the Polynesian Society 84, no. 4 (1975), p. 513. Back
  2. ‘Review of Mitcalfe, Barry,’ p. 514. Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Rawinia Higgins and Arini Loader, 'Waiata tawhito - Haka', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/waiata-tawhito/page-4 (accessed 20 November 2019)

He kōrero nā Rawinia Higgins and Arini Loader, i tāngia i te 22 Oct 2014