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Waikato tribes

by  Te Ahukaramū Charles Royal

Kei te riu o Waikato te pūtake o te Kīngitanga, tae atu ki ngā iwi i puta i te waka o Tainui. Kei ngā kōrero tuku iho ngā whakamārama mō te wāhi nui ki ngā wāhine o Waikato, pēnei i a Kahu, te pouaru nāna i taunaha ngā wāhi mahi i tana haerenga mōrearea atu i Kāwhia; a Te Puea – nāna te marae o Tūrangawaewae i whakatū; tatū rawa mai ki a Te Ātairangikaahu, te Kūini Māori ka hinga nei.


The Waikato confederation

Ko Waikato te kāhui iwi, ko Waikato te rohe whenua, ko Waikato te awa. Ko ngā iwi o Waikato ka puta i te waka a Tainui – pērā i a Ngāti Maniapoto, i a wai atu. Kīia ai rātou, ko Pare Waikato, arā, ngā iwi e noho ana ki ngā paenga whenua o Waikato.

Ko ētahi o ngā iwi o Pare Waikato, ko Ngāti Mahuta, ko Ngāti Māhanga, ko Ngāti Tamainupō, ko Ngāti Wairere, ko Ngāti Te Ata, ko Ngāti Tīpā, ko te tokomaha atu. Ka hāngai ngā hītori tōmua o Waikato ki ngā kāinga tuatahi o ngā tāngata o Tainui i Kāwhia, i te tai hauāuru o Te Ika-a-Māui. Nō te takiwā o te rau tau 1200 ka ū a Tainui ki Kāwhia.

Te Kīngitanga

Ko te Kīngitanga tētahi taonga whakakotahi i ngā iwi o Waikato. Ko te marae o Tūrangawaewae i Ngāruawāhia te pokapū o te Kīngitanga. Mai anō i tōna waihangatanga i te tekau tau atu i 1850, ko Waikato te nōhanga o te Kīngitanga. Ko te kīngi tuatahi, ko Pōtatau Te Wherowhero, he rangatira nō Waikato; ka tukua te mana o te Kīngitanga ki ōna uri, tatū mai ki Te Arikinui o ēnei rā.

Ngā whenua

Kei te pepeha nei te whakamārama mō te rohe o Waikato, inā:

Ko Mōkau ki runga
Ko Tāmaki ki raro
Ko Mangatoatoa ki waenganui.
Pare Hauraki, Pare Waikato
Te Kaokaoroa-o-Pātetere.

Kei te raki o Taranaki te awa o Mōkau e kōrerohia nei; he whenua kūiti a Tāmaki-makau-rau, kei reira e tū ana te tāone o Tāmaki. Ko Mangatoatoa, he kāinga kei te tonga o Te Awamutu. Ko te rohe o Pare Hauraki, ko ngā takiwā o Piako, o Ōhinemuri, o Moehau. Ko te rohe o Pare Waikato atu i Kāwhia, ka rere whakateraki ki te whanga o Manukau, taupae atu ki ngā pae maunga o Hūnua me Te Hapuakohe. Heoi, ko ngā tāone āhua nui ki te rohe o Waikato, ko Te Awamutu, ko Kemureti (Cambridge), ko Kirikiriroa (Hamilton), ko Rāhui Pōkeka (Huntly).

I ētahi wā, whakaritea ai te rohe o Waikato ki te waka, ina rā, ko Tāmaki te kei o te waka, ko Mōkau te tauihu, ko Te Paeroa-o-Toitehuatahi te ama.


Waikato landmarks

Te awa o Waikato

Ko Waikato te awa roa rawa atu ki Aotearoa. Ko te hikuwai o te awa kei ngā take o te maunga o Ruapehu i te taha tonga o te tāone o Tūrangi. Ka heke ngā wai mā te kōawa e kīia ai, ko Waikato, ā, kia rere ki ngā wai o Taupō. He wā anō kitea ai te ia o Waikato e tere ana i ngā wai o te moana o Taupō. Ko te awa tūturu, ka tīmata i kō atu i te tāone o Taupō, i tōna puarenga, kātahi ka rere whakateraki i te rohe o Waikato, mā te tāone o Kirikiriroa, kia puta i te pūaha o Waikato i te tai hauāuru.

Kāore he mutunga mai o ngā kōrero tuku iho a ngā iwi o Waikato mō tō rātou awa. Ko te whakataukī nei e kōrero ana mō ngā taniwha ka noho ki te awa, inā:

Waikato taniwha rau
He piko, he taniwha
He piko, he taniwha.

Ko ngā taniwha e kōrerohia nei, ko ngā rangatira, ngā tāngata whakahau o te iwi. He kōrero whakarite hoki tēnei mō te mana o ngā iwi o Waikato.

Te takenga mai o te ingoa o Waikato

I ahu mai te ingoa o Waikato nō te hekenga o Tainui i Te Moana-nui-a-Kiwa. Ka tae mai ki Aotearoa, ka tau te waka ki waho i te wahapū o te awa, ka tohu ngā tāngata o runga ki te kaha o te kato o ngā wai o te awa i te wai tai. Nō konei tapaina ai te ingoa o te awa, ko Waikato.

Kāwhia

Ko Kāwhia te one matua o ngā iwi o Waikato; kei ōna whenua, ōna takutai ngā tohu whenua maha e kōrero ana mō te roa o te wā e toitū ai ngā iwi ki te takiwā nei.

Ko Kāwhia te taunga whakamutunga o Tainui i tana hekenga roa i Hawaiki. Ka tau mai te waka ki Kāwhia, ka herea ki tētahi rākau pōhutukawa, ko Tangi-te-korowhiti te ingoa. Ka tōia te waka ki uta, ki Rangiāhua. Ko te takotoranga o Tainui, ko te wāhi e tū ana te marae o Waipapa i ēnei rā, e tata ana ki te tāone o Kāwhia. I te ūnga o te waka, ka whakatūria e Hoturoa tōna tuāhu, ko Te Ahurei.

Ka tīmata i Kāwhia ngā hītori o Tainui ki Aotearoa; koinei te wāhi i tipu ake ngā whānau tōmua. I roto i ngā whakatupuranga e whitu, kua kapi katoa a Kāwhia i ō rātou uri. Kei ngā marae maha o Tainui e kōrerohia ana te whakataukī nei mō Kāwhia:

Kāwhia moana
Kāwhia kai
Kāwhia tangata.

Ancestors

Kahu

Kei ngā kōrero mō te haerenga o te tupuna wahine a Kahu ngā whakamārama he aha i toitū ai ngā iwi o Tainui me Waikato ki tōna rohe whenua. Tērā tētahi kuia ko Kahu (ko Kahukeke, ko Kahupeka rānei). I tana kaha pōuri i te matenga o tōna hoa rangatira a Uenga, ka haere ia i tana haere, ka tīmata mā ngā whenua whakauta i Kāwhia. Ka tae ia ki tētahi maunga, ka tapaina e ia ko Te Pirongia- o-te-Aroaro-o-Kahu (Pirongia). Ki konei, tapaina ai e ia tētahi manga ko Te Manga-Waero-o-te-Aroaro-o-Kahu. Ko tētahi atu tihi kei tua tata, ka tapaina e ia ko Te Kakepuku-o-Kahu (Kakepuku); haere tonu atu, ka taunahatia e ia tētahi atu tihi, ko Te Kāwa-o-Kahu. Nō muri mai ka heke ia ki Hauraki, ka tapaina tētahi maunga ki reira, ko Te Aroha-o-Kahu, hei maimai aroha ki tōna hoa rangatira.

Ka haere tonu a Kahu i tana haere ki te tonga, me te taunaha haere i ngā takiwā. Ka tapaina e ia tētahi pae maunga ko Te Whakamaru-o-Kahu, ko tētahi atu wāhi, ko Te Whakakākaho-o-Kahu, i te mea mahia ai e ia tētahi whare kākaho ki reira. Kātahi ka huri te kuia nei mā te taha uru o te moana o Taupō, ka tapaina ētahi pae maunga, ko Te Rangitoto-o-Kahu me Te Hurakia-o-Kahu. Ka tae ia ki tētahi tihi, kua pau ana kai; whakaingoatia ai taua tihi, ko Maunga-Pau-o-Kahu. Ka tae a Kahu ki tētahi maunga, ka pāngia ia e te mate; ka takina e ia ngā karakia whakaora i a ia anō; nō muri ka whakaingoatia e ia taua maunga ko Te Pureora-o-Kahu. Nāwai ā, ka tae te kuia nei ki Te Puke-o-Kahu, ka mate ki reira.

Tūheitia rāua ko Māhanga

He tūpuna whai mana a Tūheitia rāua ko Māhanga. He toa a Tūheitia, kīhai rawa tōna kāinga i ekengia e te hoariri. E whakanuia ana tēnei āhuatanga ki te pepeha,

Haere mai ki ahau
Ki Te Papa-o-Rotu
Ki te au tē rena,
Ki te urunga tē taka,
Ki te moenga tē whakaarahia.
Ahakoa iti taku iti
He rei kei roto.

I patua a Tūheitia i te moana, ka huri hei taniwha. Kei te awa o Waipā āna haerenga.

He nui ngā haere a tana tama a Māhanga, he nui hoki ana wāhine, ana tamariki. He nui anō hoki ana pakanga. Ko ia te tupuna o te iwi o Ngāti Māhanga. E whakanuia ana ngā mahi a Māhanga i te whakataukī nei,

Māhanga whakarere kai, whakarere waka, whakarere wahine.

E pā ana tēnei kōrero ki ngā haere a Māhanga ki te takitaki i ana mate.

Ōmaero rāua ko Te Kaharoa

He marae a Ōmaero me Te Kaharoa nō Ngāti Māhanga. Tū tata ana a Ōmaero ki Whatawhata, ko Te Kaharoa kei te riu o Aramiro, e tata ana ki Whāingaroa (Raglan). Ko ngā ingoa o ngā marae nei, ka hoki rawa ki te kōrero a Māhanga i te matenga o tana tama a Tonganui, arā,

Kia whakatupu te tangata i tana tamaiti rangatira hei takitaki i te mate o Tonga-nui! Whakamau! whakamau ki Manuaitu, ki Puke-rengarenga! Tuutuu kau nga puuruu kahikatea e tuu ki Oomaero! Oraora kau nga kaakaho o Te Kaharoa! 1
Footnotes
  1. Pei Te Hurinui Jones and Bruce Biggs, Nga iwi o Tainui. Auckland: Auckland University Press, 1995, pp. 130–131. › Back

The King movement

Te Tīmatanga

Nō te tekau tau atu i 1850 ka matika te Kīngitanga Māori ki runga. Kua taunga noa atu te Pākehā ki Aotearoa i tēnei wā. Ko te whāinga o te Kīngitanga, he pupuri i te whenua, he whakaū i te mana Māori i Aotearoa. He maha ngā iwi i tautoko i te kaupapa, heoi ka pū te Kīngitanga ki te rohe me ngā iwi o Waikato. E whakahuatia ana te pupuri whenua ki ngā whakataukī, ngā waiata, ngā haka. Anei he wāhanga o tetahi o ngā tūmomo haka a te Kīngitanga:

Ka ngapu te whenua
Ka haere ngā tangata ki whea?
E Rūaimoko
Purutia!
Tāwhia!
Kia ū!
Kia ita!
A ita!
Kia mau, kia mau.

Ngā kīngi

I te tekau tau atu i 1850, ka wānangatia e ngā iwi o te motu, tae atu ki ērā o Te Wai Pounamu te take, ko wai hei kīngi mō te iwi Māori. Nō te tau 1858 ka tū a Pōtatau Te Wherowhero, rangatira o Waikato hei kīngi tuatahi. I tōna matenga i te tau 1860, ka whakawahia tana tama a Tāwhiao hei kīngi. I ngā tau ka tū a Tāwhiao hei kīngi, e pakangatia ana te riri ki Waikato i te 1863 me 1864. Nō muri i ngā pakanga ka arahina e Tāwhiao tōna iwi ki ngā whenua i te taha tonga o Te Awamutu. E karangahia ana taua rohe i ēnei rā ko Te Rohe Pōtae. He poropiti a Tāwhiao. Nāna te Kīngitanga i arataki i ngā wā o te tūpuhi. I tōna matenga i te tau 1894, ka tū tana tama a Mahuta hei kīngi.

Ngā Ariki o te Kīngitanga

Pōtatau Te Wherowhero (1858–1860)

Tāwhiao (1860–1894)

Mahuta (1894–1912)

Te Rata (1912–1933)

Korokī (1933–1966)

Te Ātairangikaahu (1966–2006)

Tūheitia (2006–)

Ka kuhu a Mahuta ki te Kaunihera Ture (Legislative Council) me te Kaunihera Whiriwhiri (Executive Council) o te whare paremata. I tōna matenga i te tau 1912 ka matika ko tana tama a Te Rata. Nā Te Rata ngā mahi a tōna matua i kawe i roto i āna whitiwhitinga kōrero ki te kāwanatanga me te Karauna ki te rapu paremata mō ana whakawhiu ki a Waikato. Nō te tau 1933 ka mate a Te Rata, ka tū ki runga ko tana tama ko Korokī. He tangata nohopuku a Korokī. I a ia ka tū hei kīngi, ka āwhina nuitia ia e tērā o ōna whāea e Te Puea Hērangi. Ka mate a Korokī i te tau 1966, ka whakawahia ko tana tamāhine ko Te Ātairangikaahu hei kuini Māori, hei ariki tapairu. Nō te matenga o Te Ātairangikaahu i te tau 2006, ka whakawahia ko tana tama ko Tūheitia hei Kīngi.


Tūrangawaewae

Ko te pokapū matua o te Kīngitanga ko te marae o Tūrangawaewae ki Ngāruawāhia. He mea tango te ingoa o te marae i tētahi o ngā tongi a Kīngi Tāwhiao:

Ko Arekahānara tōku haona kaha
Ko Kemureti tōku oko horoi
Ko Ngāruawāhia tōku tūrangawaewae. 1

Te Puea

I ngā tekau tau o 1920, o 1930, ka whakatūria te marae o Tūrangawaewae i raro i ngā whakahaere o Te Puea Hērangi, he wahine whai mana o Waikato, o te motu whānui hoki. Hei mokopuna a Te Puea mā Kīngi Tāwhiao. Nā Te Puea te Kīngitanga i tiaki i tupu anō ai he ora ki te iwi. Nā tōna māia, kaha, ka tutuki i a ia tēnei mahi nui, ahakoa te tūpuhi o te ōhanga o te ao i taua wā.

Footnotes
  1. Carmen Kirkwood, Tawhiao: king or prophet. Huntly: MAI Systems, 2000, p. 138. › Back

War and its aftermath

Te raupatu whenua

Ko te mate nui i pā ki ngā iwi o Waikato, ko te raupatu i ō rātou whenua i ngā pakanga o te tekau tau atu i 1860. I hiahia te kāwanatanga ki ngā whenua mōmona o Waikato hei whakanoho i ngā tāngata whai. Heoi, kāore te Kīngitanga i whakaae kia uru mai te Pākehā ki ōna rohe.

Nō te 12 o Hūrae 1863 ka whakawhiti ngā hōia Pākehā i te kōawa o Mangatāwhiri. Ka whakatakotongia e Tāwhiao ko te kōawa o Mangatāwhiri hei aukati i waenga i ngā whenua o te Kīngitanga me ō te Karauna. Koia ko ‘Te Pou-o-Mangatāwhiri’. Ko te kupu whakatūpato a Tāwhiao, ki te takahia te aukati e ngā hōia Pākehā, he pakanga kei te haere.

Hauwarea ngā kupu a Tāwhiao, ka urutomo ngā hōia a te kāwanatanga ki te rohe o Waikato, ka mura te riri ki ngā pā o Koheroa, o Rangiriri, o Rangiaowhia, tae rawa ki te pakanga whakamutunga i Ōrākau, he pā kei waho ake o Kihikihi. Nō te hingatanga i reira, ka rere ngā mōrehu ki Te Rohe Pōtae, ka raupatuhia ngā whenua o Waikato e te kāwanatanga.

Ōrākau

Nō te pakanga ki Ōrākau (31 o Maehe–2 o Āperira 1864) ka puta tēnei kōrero rongonui:

Ka whawhai tonu mātou, ake, ake!

E ai ki te kōrero, nā Rewi Maniapoto, rangatira o Ngāti Maniapoto te kupu nei i whakapuaki, heoi, arā anō ngā whakamārama a ētahi atu. I te tau 1888, i te whare paremata, ka kōrero a Hitiri Te Paerata o Ngāti Te Kohera, tētahi o ngā toa Māori i reira i te pakanga ki Ōrākau. Ko ana kōrero kua oti kē te hopu, te whakaputa.

Ka tae mai te kōrero a te Tianara kia tukua e mātou ā mātou pū ki raro. Kātahi ka matika taku tuahine a Ahumai - e noho ana i waenganui i ngā wāhine, ka kī ‘Ki te mate ngā tāne me ngā tungāne, he aha te take ki te ora tonu mātou ngā wāhine? Tukuna mātou kia mate me ngā tāne.’ Nā tō rātou rongo i te ngākau tapatahi a ngā wāhine, ka whakahoki a Hapurona, a Rewi, a tōku matua, ‘Ake, ake, ake.’ 1

Ka maranga anō i te rau tau 1900

Ka ara ake anō te iwi o Waikato me te Kīngitanga i te waihangatanga o te marae o Tūrangawaewae i ngā tekau tau o 1920 me 1930. Nō konei ka whai kaha anō te iwi ki te rapu paremata mō ngā whenua i raupatutia; nō te wāhanga tuarua o te rau tau 1800 ka tīmata ngā tono paremata. Nā Te Ātairangikaahu rāua ko tana tungāne ā Tā Te Kotahi Mahuta te kerēme raupatu o Waikato i whakatutuki i te tau 1995. Ka whiwhi te iwi ki tētahi paremata me tētahi whakapāha mō ngā whenua i raupatutia e te Karauna i te tekau tau atu i 1860.

He mea nui te whakataunga o ngā kerēme a Waikato, i te mea ka whai rawa rātou. Kei te ora tonu ngā whakahaere o te Kīngitanga, ā, kua tāpaea te maha noa atu o ngā take pēnei i Te Kāreti o Waikato (Waikato Endowed College) me Te Raukura Hauora o Tainui.

He iwi kaha, he iwi kakama a Waikato. E kā tonu ana ōna ahi i ōna marae maha puta noa i tōna rohe. Kei te tiakina ngā hua o te iwi e ētahi kaipakihi, poari kaitiaki hoki.

Footnotes
  1. Hiriti Te Paerata, Description of the battle of Orakau. Christchurch: Kiwi, 1999, pp. 8–9. › Back

Facts and figures

Ngā tuakiritanga ā-iwi

I ngā tatauranga o Aotearoa mai i te tau 1991 ka pātaihia ngā tāngata Māori nō tēhea iwi rātou.

Kei raro ko ngā nama e whakaatu ana tokohia ngā tāngata nō Waikato (e whai pānga ana rānei ki ētahi atu iwi hoki). Kei raro anō whakaatuhia ai ngā iwi o ngā rohe nunui i te tatauranga o te tau 2013.

Ko 1901 te tau whakamutunga rawa i pātaihia ai te Māori nō tēhea iwi rātou. Heoi kāore i pātaihia kia whakatakotohia ngā iwi maha.

  • tatauranga o 1901: 4,542
  • tatauranga o 1991: 22,227
  • tatauranga o 2001: 35,781
  • tatauranga o 2006: 33,429
  • tatauranga o 2013: 40,083

Ngā rohe nunui

  • Waikato: 13,971
  • Tāmaki-makaurau: 13,011

Hononga, rauemi nō waho

More suggestions and sources


How to cite this page: Te Ahukaramū Charles Royal, 'Waikato iwi', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/waikato-iwi/print (accessed 8 December 2019)

He kōrero nā Te Ahukaramū Charles Royal, i tāngia i te 8 Feb 2005, updated 1 Mar 2017