Kōrero: Whakairo

I te wā tuaukiuki, he rite tonu te whakairo Māori me ngā whakairo a Te Moananui-a-Kiwa. Nāwai ka kukune ake tētahi whakairo anō. I te rau tau 1920 ka puāwai mai anō te whakairo Māori tūturu, ā, he tini ngā whare whakairo hōu i hangaia, puta noa i te motu.

He kōrero nā Brett Graham
Te āhua nui: Ko Hōne Taiapa, i te tau 1970

Story Summary

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

Ngā pūrākau ōnamata

He tipuna rongonui a Ruatepupuke. E ai ki ngā kōrero nāna te whakairo i kite, i tāna haerenga ki te whakaora i tana tama, i a Manuruhi i te whare o Tangaroa.

Ngā rauemi whakairo me ngā tikanga mahi

Ko te rākau tonu he tohu nō Tāne, te atua o te ngahere. Ka tāreia  te rakau, kua ora anō mai he tipua, he tangata.

Ko te kōhatu, ko te pounamu ngā toki me ngā uhi o mua. Nō te taenga mai o Tauiwi ka tangotango ngā tohunga whakairo o te iwi Māori i ngā whao maitai.

He maha ngā tikanga me ngā ture e pā ana ki te whakairo. Kāore e taea te tahu kai me ngā kongakonga.

Kia 20 tau te tangata e ako ana ia ki ngā tūāhua katoa e pā ana ki te whakairo.

Ngā whakairo i mua i te tau 1500

He rite anō ngā tauira whakairo ukiuki a te Māori ki ō ngā moutere o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa. Ko tētahi tauira ko te whakairo o te atua, o Uenuku. E ai ki ngā tohunga, he rite tahi tēnei whakairo ki ngā whakairo i Hawai’i.

1500 ki te tau 1800

Ka whanake te whakairo Māori, ka tipu ngā tauira me ngā rauru ka takea mai i ngā ponga me ngā tipu Māori.

He tohu whai mana te pātaka whakairo me te waka taua. I te taenga mai o te iwi Pākehā ka whakamīharo rātou ki ngā whakairo Māori.

Arā tonu ngā rerekētanga puta noa i ngā iwi. Ko te tuatahi he tuare, ko te tuarua ko ngā whakairo hanga tapawhā nō te rāwhiti. 

Te rautau 1800

I te taenga mai o te Pākehā, ka pēhia ngā whakairo Māori me ngā āhuatanga katoa o te ao Māori. Ka kitea whānuitia ngā wharenui, hei tohu i te mana o te iwi, me te tirohanga ao Māori. Ko tētahi tohu mana nui ko Te Hau-ki-Tūranga, te whare whakairo i tāraia e Raharuhi Rukupō i ngā tau tōmua o te tekau tau 1840.

Te kura i Rotorua

Ko Ngāti Tarāwhai tētahi o ngā hapū rongonui mō ōna tohunga whakairo pērā i a Wero Tāroi. I noho ia ki Rotorua, he taone i kaingākautia e te tūruhi i tērā wā. I whakarerekētia ētahi tūāhua o te whakairo kia rata ai ki te hunga tāpoi me ngā kaihoko.

I te tau 1926 ka waihangatia te Kura Whakairo i Rotorua hei kura whakaako i ngā pia whakairo ki ngā taonga tuku iho a koro mā. Nā runga i tēnei kaupapa i whakatūria ai te tokomaha o ngā wharenui me ngā wharekai puta noa i te motu. 

Ngā whakairo taone

I te wāhanga tuarua o te rautau 1900 e whai tonu ana ētahi i ngā tikanga tawhito. Ko ētahi (pērā i a Arnold Manaaki Wilson) he mea whakangungu ki ngā kura toi.

Nō te tekau tau 1970 he nui te iwi Māori ka maunu ki ngā taone nohonoho ai. Ko te whakatūnga tērā o ngā tini marae ki ngā taone. Ko Cliff Whiting tētahi tohunga whakairo i mahi ki te whakairo i ngā whare hou. Ko te wharenui i Te Papa tētahi o āna mahinga. He huhua anō ngā whare tawhito nāna i whakatikatika. 

Kātahi ka whakaarahia ake ngā waka whakairo, ā, 23 te maha ka whakarewaina hei maumaharatanga mō te 150 tau o te Tiriti o Waitangi, i te tau 1990. 

Te whakairo i te tekau tau 2000

Ko te huhua o ngā marae tāone, he marae ā-iwi, he marae ahurea maha rānei, pērā i a Ngākau Māhaki ki Te Wānanga o Wairaka, i Tāmaki-makaurau. Nā Lyonel Grant ēnei whare i whakairo.

I te tau 2013 ka ākona te whakairo ki Te Wānanga o Aotearoa, ki Te Wānanga o Raukawa me Te Puia. 

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Brett Graham, 'Whakairo', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/whakairo (accessed 12 December 2019)

He kōrero nā Brett Graham, i tāngia i te 22 Oct 2014