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Whakapapa – genealogy

by Rāwiri Taonui

Mā roto i te whakapapa tātai mai ai te Māori i a ia i te orokohanga rā anō o te ao. I roto i te whakapapa whakaraupapahia ai ngā mea katoa o roto o te ao Māori.


What is whakapapa?

Ko te whakapapa te pū o te mātauranga Māori. Ko ētahi atu ingoa o te whakapapa ko te kāwai, ko te tātai. Ko te kauwhau me te taki te whakahuatanga o te whakapapa.

Ko te whakapapa te whakaraupapatanga o te Māori e tūhonotia ai ngā āhuatanga kikokiko, wairua hoki o te ao tūroa me te ao wairua. Nā reira mā te whakapapa tūhonotia ai ngā mea katoa, whai māramatanga ai hoki ngā kōrero atua, kōrero tuku iho, ngā hītori, ngā mātauranga, ngā tikanga, ngā āria me ngā wairuatanga ki tēnā whakatipuranga ki tēnā.

I whakamāramatia e te kaumātua rongonui nō Ngāti Porou, e Āpirana Ngata, te whakapapa, 'the process of laying one thing upon another. If you visualise the foundation ancestors as the first generation, the next and succeeding ancestors are placed on them in ordered layers' (ko te tukanga o te whakaraupapa i tētahi mea i runga i tētahi mea. Whakaarohia pēnei, ko te tīpuna taketake te whakatipuranga tuatahi, ā, ko ngā tīpuna e whai ake ana ka whakaraupapatia i runga i ngā tīpuna taketake).1

Ngā momo whakapapa

I whakatakoto i a Ngata ngā momo whakapapa.

Whakamoe, taotahi

Ko te whakamoe he whakatakoto hoki i ngā whakapapa me ngā hoa rangatira. Ko te taotahi ko te whakatakoto i te tātai me te kore tuku i te ingoa o ngā hoa rangatira.

Tararere

Ko te tararere he kāwai whakaheke mai i tētahi tīpuna me te mahue o ngā ingoa hoa rangatira. Koinei te whakapapa e kite whānuitia ana.

Tāhū

Ko te tāhū he tuku i te aho matua o tētahi whakapapa. Ko tētahi anō o ōna tikanga he whakahua i ngā rangatira matua o tētahi iwi. Nā reira ka kīia ake ai he tāhū whakapapa ērā o Paikea, o Pa\āoa, o Ira, o Toi, o Uepōhatu me Ruawaipū nō Ngāti Porou me ōna huanga iwi.

Whakapiri

Ko te whakapiri he whai hononga ki tētahi atu. E mātau ake ai te whanaungatanga i waenganui i te tangata, ka tākina ngā whakapapa mai i tētahi tīpuna ki ngā tāngata tokorua nei. Tēnā ka kitea nō te whakatipuranga tahi rāua, kua kimi te kaikauwhau ko wai ō rāua te tuakana, te taina rānei. Tēnā ko tētahi, kua noho tērā atu hei tamaiti māna.

Tātai hikohiko

Ko te tātai hikohiko he whakapapa e whakahua ana i ngā tīpuna matua. Ko te āhua hikohiko anō tētahi o ōna ingoa.

Ngā momo kauwhau

Ko ētahi whakapapa ka aro noa iho ki ngā whakapapa i whai take ki te iwi. Ko te nuinga o ngā momo whakapapa he taotahi he tararere rānei.

Tēnā ka tūtaki ana te tangata ki tētahi tangata, ka huaina noa te ingoa o tōna matua, whaea, tungāne, tuahine, kaumātua rānei hei tūhono ki tētahi atu. I ētahi wa ka whakatakotohia ngā rārangi whakamoe hei tūhono ki ētahi atu.

He maha ngā taumau hei paihere i ētahi iwi. Hei tauira ko tērā o Ueoneone o Ngāpuhi ki a Reitu o Ngāti Pou nō Waikato; ko Ruapūtahanga o Taranaki ki a Whatihua o Waikato; ko Tūrongo o Waikato ki a Māhina-a-rangi o te Tai Rāwhiti. Ko Te Kupenga a Te Huki tonu tētahi pou tarawaho e tohu ana i ngā paenga a-iwi.

Footnotes
    • A. T. Ngata, Rauru-nui-ā-Toi lectures and Ngati Kahungunu origin. Te Whanganui-a-Tara: Victoria University, 1972, wh. 6. Back

Whakapapa of creation

Ngā whakapapa o te orokohanga

Ko ngā kōrero o te orokohanga ngā kōrero tapu rawa i tōna whakapapa haere i ngā pūtakenga mai o te ao tūroa. Mai i ēnei pūtakenga whakapapa ai ngā mea katoa. Iwi mai, rohe mai, tohunga mai, ka rerekē ngā whakapapa o te orokohanga o te ao.

Ka ahu mai ngā whakapapa i Te Pō, ki Te Kore ka puta ko Te Ao. Ka hua ake ko Ranginui rāua ko Papatūānuku heke iho ki ngā atua o te taiao, o te ahunga tangata me ētahi atu ira. Nō konei whai mārama katoa ai te ao nui mārama.

Tā Te Ahukaramū

Ki te rangatira o te rautau 1800 a Te Ahukaramū o Ngāti Raukawa, tokorua ana whakapapa mō Te Pō, Te Kore me Te Ao.

Te Pō

Te Ata

Te Ao

Te Ao-tū-roa

Te Ao Mārama.

Ko te tuarua e whakaatu ana i te whai hua mai i te kore ki tētahi kē:

Aituā

Te Kore

Te Mangu

Rangipōtiki.

Te Rangikāheke

Anei tā Te Rangikāheke o Te Arawa:

Te Pō, te Pō

Te Ao, te Ao

Te kimihanga, te hahaunga, i te kore, i te kore

Ko te nui, ko te roanga

Rangi = Papa

Ranginui me Papatūānuku

I roto i ngā kōrero tuku iho mō te orokohanga, ko Ranginui e tū iho nei ko Papatūānuku e takoto nei ngā tīpuna toitū. Ko ō rāua uri i toitū ki roto i te ao tūroa. Tērā ko Tāwhirimātea te atua o te āhuarangi; ko Tangaroa te atua o te moana; ko Tāne-māhuta te atua o te ngahere; ko Tūmatauenga te atua o te riri; ko Rongo te atua o te whakatō me te hauhake; ko Haumia te atua o te aruhe. I a rātou ka puta te ira tangata me ngā āhuatanga katoa o te ao tūroa.

Whakapapa o te ao tūroa

Tērā hoki te hekenga tahi mai o te kiore me te kūmara i te whakapapa tahi. Ka kāhaki a Rongo-māui i te kōpura kūmara a tōna tuakana a Whānui. Nō muri ka whakatōkia e ia ki tana wahine ki a Pani. Ka hua i a ia te kūmara.

Kei tētahi atu whakapapa, ka moe a Rongo-māui i a Pani, ka puta ko Hine-mata-iti. Na Hine-mata-iti ko te kiore.

Nā Haumia ka puta ko mōnehu, nāna ko waero rāua ko namu.


Whakapapa with links to Polynesia

Atua – ngā hononga ki Poronīhia

Arā anō ngā ōritenga ki ngā iwi o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa. Hāunga tonu tā te nuinga kī ai ko Ranginui me Papatūānuku ngā mātua atua, arā anō ngā rerekētanga ā-iwi. Tērā hoki ngā kōrero o ētahi motu kē e tūhono ana i te rangi me te whenua. Ahakoa ka rerekē ngā ingoa o Rangi ka whakapuakina tonu ai te ingoa o Papa mō te whenua arā ki Hāmoa ko Papa’ele; ki Tonga ko Papakele, ki Tahiti ko Papatu’oi, ki Hawaii ko Papa; ki Rarotonga ko Paparoa-i-te-itinga.

Ngā whakapapa tipua

He huhua tonu ngā momo whakapapa tipua, ka mutu he rerekē ngā wā e putaputa mai rātou i ngā whakapapa o ia kaitito, o ia iwi. Ko tērā e rangona whānuitia ana ko tērā mō Kaitangata, mō Whaitiri, mō Hema me Tāwhaki. Rongonui ana tēnei kōrero puta noa i Te Moananui-a-Kiwa. Ko Māui tonu tētahi tīpuna rongonui.

Ka kitea hoki ētahi Kāwai Whakapapa o Poronīhia ki ētahi whaitua o Meranīhia me Maikoronīhia. I whāiti, ka mutu i horapa ēnei whakapapa tipua ki ētahi takiwā. Ka whai hīranga ēnei whakapapa i te mea ka tūhono ēnei whakapapa i te ira tangata ki te orokohanga mai o te ao. Ko te kaupapa ake o ēnei kōrero he whakaahua i te takohatanga mai o ētahi painga ki te ira tangata. Ko ētahi tauira ko te toiatanga o te rā, ko te rironga o te ahi me te hutitanga ake o te whenua i te moana.

Ngā tīpuna o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa

Hokihoki tonu ai ngā whakapapa o te Māori ki ngā tīpuna o ngā mātāwaka i heke mai ki Aotearoa. Taketake rawa ka pā anō hoki ēnei whakapapa ki ngā whakapapa rongonui o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa. Kei tēnā iwi, kei tēnā tohunga tātai anō ōna ake momo whakapapa, ā, he kārangaranga ingoa ōrite anō hoki tā ētahi.

Ko tētahi o ngā tātai rongonui rawa e kitea ana i ngā whakapapa ā-iwi ko tērā o Whiro, o Toi, o Whatonga, o Rakeiora me Tahatiti. Ko Whiro tētahi o ngā kaiwhakatere waka rongonui rawa o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa, ka mutu ko Hilo tōna ingoa ki Hawaii, ko Hiro ki Tahiti me Tuamotu, ā, ko ‘Iro ki Rarotonga. E kitea ana a Whiro i ngā kōrero a ngā iwi Māori, hāunga kei roto o Ngāti Porou, Ngāti Kahungunu, te Tai Rāwhiti me Te Moana-a-Toi ngā kōrero mōna.Ko Toi rāua ko Whātonga tonu ētahi tīpuna toitū o Aotearoa. Ko Rakeiora e mōhiotia ana ki Aotearoa me Te Moananui-a-Kiwa, ka mutu he tīpuna rongonui a Tahatiti ki Rarotonga, hāunga tonu karangatia ai ia ko Rarotonga.


Recalling whakapapa

Kei roto i ngā waiata me ngā oriori ngā whakapapa e mau tonu ana, ka mutu kei roto i te waiata te whakapapa whai māramatanga ai. Ka hoki ake anō ngā whakapapa ki ngā kōrero tuku iho e whai kiko ai te whakapapa.

I te Māori e whakatakoto ana i ōna kokoraho ki mua i te Kōti Whenua Māori ka tukuna ai ōna whakapapa, waiata me ōna kōrero hei kōrero taunaki. I whai take ai ngā kokoraho a te Māori i ngā take tīpuna, nā reira ka whakahokia ngā kōrero ki ngā whakapapa hei whakaatu i te mana whenua ki tētahi wāhi.

Tikanga kōrero tuku iho

E ai ki te pūkenga a H. W. Williams i whakangungu te Māori i ōna tohunga tātai hei pupuri i ngā kōrero tuku iho me ngā tātai whakapapa. Ko te kairangahau nei a Te Peehi tonu i kōrero mō tētahi tangata nāna i tuku ngā waiata me ngā karakia e 341 te rahi. I te tekau tau 1890 ka tukuna e Tamarau Waiari o Ngāti Koura ngā ingoa 1,400 te huhua i roto i te Kōti Whenua Māori ki roto i tāna tātai i ngā uri kanohi kitea o tētahi tīpuna i ora i ngā reanga e 20 ki mua.

Inā noa ngā tohunga kē atu o te whānau te hapū me te iwi i pupuri ai i ngā kōrero. Nā reira ko te mātauranga whānui o ētahi iwi i nui kē ake i ērā i puritia e te tohunga kotahi.

He rākau whakapapa anō tō ētahi tohunga whakapapa e rākaitia ana ki ngā peka. I a rātou e whakapapa ana, e tohu ana, ia peka o te rākau i tētahi whakatipuranga.

I te taenga mai o te tuhituhi, kātahi ka whakatakotohia ngā whakapapa ki te puka. I te nuinga o te wa, ka mate ana te kaipupuri o aua puka, ka nehua hoki, ka tahuna rānei ngā puka i te kaha tapu rawa.

I ngā tau tōmuri o te rautau 1800 inā mate ai he tangata rongonui ka whakaputahia o rātou whakapapa ki roto i ngā niupepa reo Māori.


Whakapapa as a whare

Te āhua o te whakapapa ā-iwi

I te tau 1843 ka whakatakoto a Āperahama Taonui i te tuhinga whakapapa tuatahi rawa. E 350 ngā ingoa, ā, e 40 neke atu rānei ngā reanga o roto. Tēnā ki te horaina te whakapapa nei mai i ngā wā o mua ki nāianei, kua rite tōna āhua ki te tauira o te wharenui.

Kei runga i te wharenui nei ko te tekoteko. E tau ana te tekoteko ki runga i ngā maihi, ā tae iho ki te poho o te whare. E 27 ngā whakatipuranga takitahi o te tekoteko e whakairo ana i ngā tīpuna mai i te orokohanga me ērā o muri iho. Mai i konā kua heke ki ngā maihi me te tauhekenga o te iwi ake. Mai i reira kua horapa te whakapapa hei whare tae noa ki ōna rārangi kāwai e 80 e 8 ki te 10 ngā reanga kei roto kapi katoa ai te wharenui.

Ngā tuhinga a Taonui

I roto i te tuhinga a Taonui, e 300 pea o ngā ingoa e 350 e hoki ana ki ngā kāwai e waru tekau. Kei runga ia kāwai whakaheke ko te ūpoko o tētahi hapū e whai huanga ana ki a Taonui, ki tōna whānau me ngā rangatira o tērā wā. Ahakoa miharo te tuhinga nei, he tuhinga kotahi noa ake tēnei nā Taonui i taua wā tonu rā.

Te maihi o te whakapapa

Ko tēnei wāhanga o te whakapapa ka mahara ki ngā tīpuna taketake o tētahi iwi. Ki roto o Tainui ka tīmata i a Tawhao me ana tama i a Whatihua rāua ko Tūrongo me ā rāua wāhine i a Ruapūtahanga me Māhina-a-rangi. Ki roto o Ngāpuhi ka tīmata mai i a Rāhiri me ōna hoa rangatira i a Whakaruru rāua ko Ahuaiti.

Ngā paenga o te whakapapa

E kīia ana ka maharatia ētahi tīpuna, ā, ko ētahi ka warewarea. Ko rātou e mārama ana ki ngā kāwai maha o te whare whakapapa ka āhei tonu te mahara ake ki ētahi atu ingoa o mua ake. Nā te tohu o te whare whakapapa i ngā kōrero tuku iho o te hapū, ka warewarea ētahi tīpuna nō takiwā kē – ā ka warewarea ērā ingoa.

Te tekoteko o te whakapapa

Kei runga rawa ake ko te tekoteko kotahi. I roto i ngā tuhinga a Taonui ka whakatakoto ia i ngā ingoa e 27 te rahi mai i a Rāhiri tae ake ki a Kupe. Anei tana whakamārama:

Ko te mutunga o te popoarengarenga. Ka tīmata i te tua tangata. E tata kuna ana ēnei mea, i te hokinga mai i te tapu i te tūpāpaku, hei whakanoa, kia kai tango ai ngā ringaringa.

Ka pahure, ka marara te iwi. Kei runga ake i a Rāhiri ko ētahi tīpuna tawhito rongonui rawa.


Scholars and whakapapa

Ngā raru i te whakaputanga

I ngā tau o mua i te 1900 ka whakarerekē ngā kaituhi Pākehā i te whakapaparanga o Te Pō, Te Ao, me Te Kore. Nā tō rātou māramatanga ki te kupu o Te Kore, ka makaia ki mua ake i te orokohanga o te ao.

Kātahi ka tahuri ngā ākonga Māori tuatahi o te ao Pākehā ki te whāngai i tēnei whakapapa ki ngā iwi. Tatū mai ki tēnei rā e whakaponotia ana tēnei whakapapa.

Te whakahuri i ngā whakapapa hei hītori

Ko tā ētahi kaituhi Pākehā pera i a Te Mete (Stephenson Percy Smith) i roto i tana puka Hawaiki (1921) he whakahītori rawa I ngā whakapapa i te pōhēhē he tangata tonu ngā whakapaparanga ērā tīpuna e 50-60 whakapaparanga ki mua me te whakakotahi mai i ngā iwi katoa ki raro i te whakapapa kotahi i runga i te whakatau ko Kupe te tangata tuatahi kia tae mai ki Aotearoa i ngā whakapaparanga e 42 ki mua i te tau 950. Whai muri mai ko Toi i te tau 1150, ā, whai muri iho ko te rāngai waka e whitu i tae mai i te tau 1350. Ka horapa whānui te āria a Te Mete i runga i te kawea haere e ērā Māori i kuraina ki ngā kura Pākehā.

Ngā wā pōhēhē

Ko tā ngā Pākehā anō he whakatoharite i ngā whakapapa e hua ake ai tētahi tau. Ka mutu inā kitea e rātou te tipuna kotahi me te roa ake o tētahi o ōna rārangi whakapapa i tētahi, kua pōhēhētia tokorua rāua. Hei tauira, e 58 ki te 18 whakapaparanga ngā momo tātai whakaheke mai i a Kupe.

Whakapapa whānui

Ka raru te Māori i konei. Hei tauira ka noho toka ēnei whakapapa ki roto i te Kōti Whenua Māori me te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi nā te noho pōhēhē ki te tauira o te Pākehā. Ka mutu he rahi tonu ēnei whakapapa ka takahurihia kia riro mai ai he whenua.

Te pakiwaitara me te kōrero tuku iho

Ko tā te tauira Pākehā he wāhi i ngā whakapapa ki roto i te pakiwaitara me te kōrero tuku iho. Ka pā ngā pakiwaitara ki ngā kōrero o te orokohanga mai i Te Kore ki Te Pō, ki a Ranginui rāua ko Papatūānuku me a rāua tamariki ngā atua o te taiao, heke iho ki ngā tipua tangata o te Māori pērā i a Māui me Tāwhaki. E ai ki ngā pūkenga a Bruce Biggs rāua ko Ranginui Walker, he mutunga kore ngā pakiwaitara. Ko ngā kōrero tuku iho ko ērā mahinga nō te mano tau kua pahure, tae atu ki te huranga ake o Aotearoa, ngā iwi taketake me ngā whanaungatanga i waenganui i a rātou. He ōrite hoki ngā whakaaro o Margaret Orbell, engari ki a ia he pakiwaitara anō hoki ngā kōrero tuku iho.


Hononga, rauemi nō waho

More suggestions and sources


How to cite this page: Rāwiri Taonui, 'Whakapapa', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/whakapapa/print (accessed 6 December 2019)

He kōrero nā Rāwiri Taonui, i tāngia i te 5 May 2011, updated 1 Jul 2015