Kōrero: Whare Māori

Ko te whare whakairo tētahi o ngā tohu nui o te hoahoa whare Māori. Tapaina ai ēnei whare ātaahua ki te tipuna. I te tekau tau 2000 ka whakamahi tonu ētahi kaihoahoa whare Māori i ngā tikanga me ngā uara Māori.

He kōrero nā Deidre Brown
Te āhua nui: He pātaka, i te tekau tau 1840

Story Summary

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

Ngā whare tōmua

Ko ngā whare tuatahi a te Māori i tauiratia i ō rātou whare i Hawaiki. Ki Aotearoa he puni ēnei momo whare, i te wā e neke ana te tangata ki te kimi kai.  He papa rākau, he kākaho, he rau, he whāriki (ka horaina ki runga i te papa one) ngā rauemi hanga whare. E mahana ai te tangata, he paku ngā whare, he hāhaka ngā kūwaha, ā, ka tahuna te ahi ki roto. Purupurua atu hoki ngā tahataha o waho ki te one.

I te takiwā o te rautau 1400 ka nui haere ngā iwi me ngā kāinga. Ka hangaia te wharepuni – he mahau tōna, ā, he nui tangata ka uru ki te wharepuni. Ko ētahi atu whare he pātaka (he mea whakairo ētahi), he kāuta. 

Ngā pūtake

Nā te tipuna o Ngāti Porou nā Ruatepupuke i waihanga te whare whakairo tuatahi ki te Tai Rāwhiti.

He maha ngā  whare whakairo ka tapaina ki tētahi tipuna, ā, ka noho ko te wharenui te whakatinanatanga o taua tangata. Ki te titiro a ētahi he tinana whārōrō te whare, ā, ka mihia te whare whakairo ānō nei e ora ana ia. 

Te aranga ake o te whare whakairo

E ai ki te whakaaro nō te pokapū o te rautau 1800 ka tīmata te hanga o ngā whare whakairo tuatahi. He wā tēnei i takahuri te ao o te Māori. Ka mutu ko ngā whare whakairo he whare huihuinga mō te iwi ki ngā kaupapa nui. Ka auahatia ngā whakairo o ngā pātaka, me ngā mahau o ngā wharepuni. Ka kaha ake te whakamahi o ngā rākau a te Pākehā.

  • He mea whakarākai ngā whare a Te Kooti ki te peita, kāpā ki te whakairo.
  • I te kāinga o Parihaka, ka whakakapi ngā whare Pākehā i ngā whare Māori.

I tauiratia e Rua Kēnana tōna whare a Hīona ki te temepara o Horomona i roto i te karaipiture. 

Te whakarauora

Nō te tekau tau 1920 kua popo haere ngā whare whakairo. Ka tahuri a Āpirana Ngata ki te tapitapi i ngā whare tawhito. Ko te whakatūnga hoki tērā o te whare whakairo, ā, taro kau iho matomato ana te tūtū mai o ngā whare whakairo ki ngā kāinga. Nā te tapu, kāore tonu e whakaaetia te tomo a te wahine ki te wāhi mahi. He mahi tukutuku kē tā ngā wahine. Arā atu te tokomaha o ōna tauira i puta ki te ako i ētahi anō. 

Ngā hanganga whare hou

Mai i te tekau tau 1960, ka tūtū haere ngā marae i ngā tāone. Ka tāpiritia atu he wharepaku me te whare ora. He rite tonu te āhua o ngā wharenui. He mahau, he matapihi, he kūaha kei mua. I te tekau tau 1980 ka hangaia ngā marae ki roto i ngā whare herehere, ki ngā kura me ngā whare wānanga.

Ko John Scott rāua ko Wiremu Royal ētahi o ngā whakaihuwaka Māori ki te ao hoahoa whare hou. Nā Scott te Futuna Chapel kei Karori i auaha. Ko Rau Hoskins rāua ko Rewi Thompson anō ētahi o te kāhui Māori e toro kaha ana mai i ngā ariā hanga whare Māori.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Deidre Brown, 'Whare Māori', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/whare-maori (accessed 7 December 2019)

He kōrero nā Deidre Brown, i tāngia i te 22 Oct 2014